Xiapu dialect

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Xiapu dialect
霞浦話
Native to Southern China
Region Xiapu, Ningde, Fujian
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
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Xiapu dialect (Eastern Min: 霞浦話) is a dialect of Eastern Min Chinese spoken in Xiapu, Ningde in northeastern Fujian province of China.

Phonology[edit]

Xiapu dialect has 15 initials, 43 rimes and 7 tones.

Initials[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m
n
ŋ
Stop Aspirated


Tenuis p
t
k
ʔ
Fricative (β) θ
(ʒ) x
Affricate Aspirated ʦʰ
Tenuis ʦ
Lateral l

Rimes[edit]

a ia ua ai au uai
iaŋ uaŋ aiŋ ɔuŋ
iaʔ uaʔ aiʔ ɔuʔ
ɛ, ɔ ɛu
ɔʔ
e, o ø oi eu
eiŋ, ouŋ yoŋ
eiʔ, ouʔ øʔ, yoʔ
u iu ui
yuŋ
yuʔ
i, y

Tones[edit]

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Tone name dark level
陰平
light level
陽平
rising
上聲
dark departing
陰去
light departing
陽去
dark entering
陰入
light entering
陽入
Tone contour ˦˦ (44) ˨˨ (22) ˦˨ (42) ˧˥ (35) ˨˩˨ (212) ˥ (5) ˨ (2)

Initial assimilation[edit]

The two-syllable initial assimilation rules are shown in the table below:

The Coda of the Former Syllable The Initial Assimilation of the Latter Syllable
Null coda or /-ʔ/
  • /p/, /pʰ/ change to /β/;
  • /t/, /tʰ/, /θ/ change to /l/;
  • /x/ change to the null initial;
  • /ʦ/ and /ʦʰ/ change to /ʒ/;
  • /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /k/, /kʰ/, /l/ and the null initial remain unchanged.
/-ŋ/
  • /p/ and /pʰ/ change to /m/;
  • /t/, /tʰ/, /θ/ change to /n/;
  • /k/, /kʰ/, /x/ and the null initial change to /ŋ/;
  • /ʦ/ and /ʦʰ/ change to /ʒ/;
  • /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/, /l/ remain unchanged.
/-k̚/ All initials remain unchanged.

Tone sandhi[edit]

The two-syllable tonal sandhi rules are shown in the table below:

the second syllable
the first syllable dark level
44
light level
22
rising
42
dark departing
35
light departing
212
dark entering
5
light entering
2
dark departing
35
55 51
dark entering
5
rising
42
51 5
dark level
44
44
light departing
212
light entering
2
light level
22
22

References[edit]