Southern Loloish languages

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Southern Loloish
Hanoish
Geographic
distribution
Southern China and Indochina
Linguistic classification Sino-Tibetan
Glottolog hani1249[1]

The Southern Loloish or Southern Ngwi languages, also known as the Hanoish (Hanish) languages, constitute a branch of the Loloish languages that includes Akha and Hani.

Languages[edit]

The branches included in Lama (2012), with languages from Bradley (2007), are:

Hanoish 

Jinuo



 Bisoid 

Cốông




Sangkong



Bisu (Laomian), Phunoi (Singsali, Singsili), Pyen





 Hanoid 

Sila (Sida), Phana’




Akeu (Chepya)



Hani (AkhaHani, Honi)




Bi-Ka

Piyo, Enu, Mpi



Kaduo






Hanoid in Lama (2012) is alternatively called Akoid in Bradley (2007), who recognizes the Hani-Akha and Haoni-Baihong languages as part of the Akoid group.

Other Southern Loloish languages are:

  • Muda
  • Paza (Phusang), a recently discovered language of northern Laos related to Sila[2]
  • Bana or Bala[3] in Laos. Speakers are included in the Kaw (Akha) ethnic group. The language is now being replaced by other larger languages such as Akha and Lahu.
  • Suobi 梭比, spoken in Yinyuan Township 因远镇, Yuanjiang County
  • Nuobi 糯比, closely related to Suobi
  • Cosao, a Southern Loloish language closely related to Khir
  • Yiche 奕车, spoken in Honghe County

Kato (2008) also documents:

Other Southern Loloish language varieties in south-central Yunnan include Bukong 布孔, Budu 布都,[4] Asuo 阿梭, Duota 堕塔,[5] Amu 阿木, Lami 腊米, Qiedi 切弟, Kabie 卡别,[6], Woni 窝尼, Duoni 多尼, and Habei 哈备. Habei is unclassified within Southern Loloish.

Hsiu (2016, 2018)[edit]

A 2016 computational phylogenetic lexical analysis by Hsiu (2016)[7] distinguished the following five branches of Southern Loloish, providing further support for the Hanoid (Akoid) and Bisoid branches in Lama (2012) and Bradley (2007). A new Siloid branch was added.

  1. Hanoid
  2. Bisoid
  3. Siloid
  4. Bi-Ka (?)
  5. Jinuo
Southern Loloish

The Southern Loloish tree above was subsequently revised by Hsiu (2018)[8] as follows, with 6 subgroups included.

Southern Loloish

Hsiu (2018) considers the Hani-Akha and Bi-Ka subgroups to be part of a northern linkage in south-central Yunnan, while the Siloid, Bisoid, Jino, and Mpi subgroups are part of a southern linkage in the China-Laos border region.[8]

Innovations[edit]

Lama (2012) lists the following changes from Proto-Loloish as Hanoish innovations.

  • *m- → zero /__[u] (Hani and Haoni)
  • *kh- > x- (Hani and Haoni)
  • *N- > NC or C (nasal hardening rule in Bisu and Sangkong)
  • Reversed order of syllables (family-wide)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hani–Jino". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/numeral/Paza.htm
  3. ^ Bradley, David (2007). "Language Endangerment in China and Mainland Southeast Asia". In Matthias Brenzinger, ed. Language diversity endangered. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  4. ^ 中国少数民族社会历史调查资料丛刊》修订编辑委员会. 2009. 哈尼族社会历史调查, p.94, 99. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.
  5. ^ Jiangcheng County Almanac (1989:351)
  6. ^ Jiang Ying [蒋颖], Cui Xia [崔霞], Qiao Xiang [乔翔]. 2009. A study of Ximoluo [西摩洛语研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
  7. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2016. The classification of Cosao: a Lolo-Burmese language of China and Laos. Presented at the 22nd Himalayan Languages Symposium, Guwahati, India. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1127809
  8. ^ a b Hsiu, Andrew. 2018. Classifications of some lesser-known Lolo-Burmese languages.
  • Bradley, David. 2007. East and Southeast Asia. In Moseley, Christopher (ed.), Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, 349-424. London & New York: Routledge.
  • Lama, Ziwo Qiu-Fuyuan (2012), Subgrouping of Nisoic (Yi) Languages, thesis, University of Texas at Arlington (archived)
  • Kingsadā, Thō̜ngphet, and Tadahiko Shintani. 1999 Basic Vocabularies of the Languages Spoken in Phongxaly, Lao P.D.R. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA).
  • Shintani, Tadahiko, Ryuichi Kosaka, and Takashi Kato. 2001. Linguistic Survey of Phongxaly, Lao P.D.R. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA).
  • Kato, Takashi. 2008. Linguistic Survey of Tibeto-Burman languages in Lao P.D.R. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA).