|• Mayor||Wacław Olszewski|
|• Total||11.6 km2 (4.5 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||19-400 to 19-402|
|Area code(s)||+48 87|
|Car plates||NOE, NOG|
Olecko [ɔˈlɛt͡skɔ] (former German: Marggrabowa (help·info) since 1560, colloquially also Oletzko (help·info), Treuburg (help·info) since 1928, Lithuanian: Alėcka) is a city in Masuria, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, near Ełk and Suwałki. It is situated at the mouth of the Lega river which flows into the Great Olecko Lake (Jezioro Oleckie Wielkie) on its south-western shore. Olecko is the seat of Olecko County.
Marggrabowa was founded as a town by Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Duke of the Duchy of Prussia, on January 1, 1560. The town's Masurian Slavic-sounding name is derived from the German word Markgraf, the duke's title as the margraviate of Brandenburg's prince. The city's coat of arms still reflects the Brandenburg red eagle and the Hohenzollern black and white which go back to Albert of Brandenburg Prussia. The populace became Lutheran-Protestant within the Duchy of Prussia in 1525.
At the same location as the present location of the town there has been a hunting lodge called Oletzko since 1544. At a peninsula towards the lake, across the Lega river, in 1619 the Castle of Oletzko (Schloss Oletzko) was established as a regional administrative seat for the Dukes of Prussia.
Between 1818 and 1945, Marggrabowa was the seat of Oletzko County (Kreis Oletzko) in the province of East Prussia.
In 1920, the East Prussian plebiscite was held in the area by the League of Nations according to the Treaty of Versailles. The plebiscite resulted in 3,903 votes for Germany and none for Poland. As a result, the town was renamed Treuburg (lit.: loyal castle) in 1928.
After World War II the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union. Most Germans fled or were expelled and replaced with Poles, some of whom expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union or Ukrainians forced to settle in the area through Operation Vistula in 1947.
The Train Station in the western part of town is a regional railway junction: there were main lines to Gołdap, Ełk and Suwałki. The local railway connections to Mieruniszki, Kruklanki and Sulejki are out of service or dismantled. Currently only bus service runs from the train station.
- Gustav Bergenroth (1813-1869), German historian
- Kurt Blumenfeld (1884–1963), Zionist
- Arthur Zimmermann (1864–1940), diplomat, author of the Zimmermann Telegram
Twin towns — sister cities
Olecko is twinned with:
- Jõhvi, Estonia
- Marzian, Herbert; Kenez, Csaba (1970). Selbstbestimmung für Ostdeutschland – Eine Dokumentation zum 50 Jahrestag der ost- und westpreussischen Volksabstimmung am 11. Juli 1920 (in German). p. 65.
- Municipal website of Olecko (en)(pl)
- Website of Olecko (pl)
- iOlecko - news, events, history, photos from Olecko (pl)
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