|Mari El Republic
Республика Марий Эл (Russian)
Марий Эл Республик (Meadow Mari)
Мары Эл Республик (Hill Mari)
|— Republic —|
|Established||December 5, 1936|
|Government (as of December 2013)|
|• Head||Alexander Yevstifeyev (acting)|
|• Legislature||State Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|• Total||23,200 km2 (9,000 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Density||30.02/km2 (77.8/sq mi)|
|Population (January 2013 est.)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Official languages||Russian; Mari (Meadow and Hill variants)|
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The Mari El Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Мари́й Эл, Respublika Mariy El; Meadow Mari: Марий Эл Республик; Hill Mari: Мары Эл Республик) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is geographically located in the European Russia region of the country, along the northern bank of the Volga River, and is administratively part of the Volga Federal District. The Mari El Republic has a population of 696,459 (2010 Census).
Mari El is one of Russia's ethnic republics, primarily representing the indigenous Mari people, a Finno-Ugric ethnic group who have traditionally lived along the Volga River and Kama River. The majority of the republic's population are ethnic Russians (47.4%) and Mari (43.9%), with minority populations of Tatars and Chuvash. The official languages of Mari El are Russian and the Mari language, including the two dialects of Meadow Mari and Hill Mari. Mari El is bordered by Nizhny Novgorod Oblast to the west, Kirov Oblast to the north, Tatarstan to the east, and Chuvashia to the south.
The republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain of Russia, along and mostly to the north the Volga River. The swampy Mari Depression is in the west of the republic, contrasted by more hilly landscapes in the east where the highest point of the republic (at 278 meters (912 ft)) is located. The republic borders with Kirov Oblast in the north and east, the Republic of Tatarstan in the southeast and south, the Chuvash Republic in the south, and with Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west and north.
There are 476 rivers in the republic, with the Volga and its tributaries being the major water arteries. Most rivers are considered to be minor—10–50 meters (33–164 ft) wide and 0.5–1.4 meters (1 ft 8 in–4 ft 7 in) deep—and usually freeze between mid-November and mid-April. There are over 700 lakes and ponds; many located in the swampy areas and having areas of less than 1 square kilometer (0.39 sq mi) and depths between 1 and 3 meters (3 ft 3 in and 9 ft 10 in). Lake Yalchik, occupying 150 hectares (370 acres), is the largest by area, while Lake Tabashinskoye is the deepest. Swamps cover large areas—10–70 square kilometers (3.9–27.0 sq mi) and up to 100 square kilometers (39 sq mi)—and usually freeze in December. While swamps tend to be shallow, with an average depth of 0.5–1.5 meters (1 ft 8 in–4 ft 11 in), they are impassable in fall and spring due to flooding.
Climate is moderately continental, with moderately cold and snowy winters and warm and often rainy summers. The average temperatures range from 18–20 °C (64–68 °F) in summer to −18 – −20 °C (0 – −4 °F) in winter. November is the windiest month of the year. Annual precipitation varies from 450 to 500 millimeters (18 to 20 in).
There are virtually no natural resources of industrial significance in the republic. Other resources include peat, mineral waters, and limestone. About 50% of the republic's territory is forested, although the level of forestation varies significantly from one district to another.
Ancient Mari tribes were known since the 5th century, though archeologists suspect Mari culture to be much older in its roots. Later their area was a tributary of Volga Bulgaria and the Golden Horde. In the 1440s it was incorporated into the Khanate of Kazan and was occupied by the Tsardom of Russia (governed by Ivan the Terrible) after the fall of Kazan in 1552.
After the Russian Revolution, under the Bolshevik regime, the Mari Autonomous Oblast was established on November 4, 1920. It was re-organized into the Mari ASSR on December 5, 1936, at the same time as the enactment of the 1936 Soviet Constitution (a.k.a. the "Stalin Constitution"). In its present form the Mari El Republic was formed on December 22, 1990.
The government of Mari El has been pursuing Russification in recent years, with former head of the republic, Leonid Markelov, ordering many Mari language newspapers to close. Many ethnic Mari activists live under fear of violence. The Mari activist and chief editor Vladimir Kozlov was badly beaten after he criticized Markelov's government. Other Mari leaders have been subject to violence, legal persecution and intimidation.
The Mari people's native religion has encountered hostility as well. Vitaly Tanakov was charged with inciting religious, national, social and linguistic hatred after publishing the book The Priest Speaks.
The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) and the Moscow Helsinki Group (MHG),in an exhaustive 2006 report Russian Federation: The Human Rights Situation of the Mari Minority of the Republic of Mari El, found widespread evidence of political and cultural persecution of Mari people, and of "a broader trend of repression of dissidents in the republic".
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
|1993||758||8,019||9,622||- 1,603||10.6||12.7||- 2.1||1,56|
|1994||758||7,851||10,788||- 2,937||10.4||14.2||- 3.9||1,53|
|1995||757||7,337||9,999||- 2,662||9.7||13.2||- 3.5||1,43|
|1996||755||6,952||9,495||- 2,543||9.2||12.6||- 3.4||1,35|
|1997||752||6,782||9,625||- 2,843||9.0||12.8||- 3.8||1,32|
|1998||749||6,657||9,623||- 2,966||8.9||12.8||- 4.0||1,29|
|1999||746||6,597||10,674||- 4,077||8.8||14.3||- 5.5||1,28|
|2000||741||6,784||11,040||- 4,256||9.1||14.9||- 5.7||1,30|
|2001||736||6,832||11,434||- 4,602||9.3||15.5||- 6.3||1,30|
|2002||729||7,300||12,105||- 4,805||10.0||16.6||- 6.6||1,38|
|2003||723||7,515||11,861||- 4,346||10.4||16.4||- 6.0||1,40|
|2004||718||7,715||12,098||- 4,383||10.7||16.9||- 6.1||1,40|
|2005||713||7,475||12,256||- 4,781||10.5||17.2||- 6.7||1,34|
|2006||708||7,550||11,286||- 3,736||10.7||15.9||- 5.3||1,32|
|2007||704||8,306||10,745||- 2,439||11.8||15.3||- 3.5||1,45|
|2008||701||8,620||10,699||- 2,079||12.3||15.3||- 3.0||1,50|
|2009||699||8,896||10,435||- 1,539||12.7||14.9||- 2.2||1,60|
|2010||696||8,857||10,572||- 1,715||12.7||15.2||- 2.5||1,59|
|2011||694||9,066||9,816||- 750||13.0||14.1||- 1.1||1,66|
Note: Total fertility rate source.
Though the Mari people have lived in the area for millennia, they did not have a designated territory before the Russian Revolution of 1917. According to the 2002 Census only 51.7% of the Mari within Russia live in the Mari El Republic, while 17.5% live in the Republic of Bashkortostan. During the last Soviet Census (1989), 4% of the Mari of the Soviet Union lived outside of Russia.
Since World War II, more ethnic Russians and Tatars have moved into the area. According to the 2010 Census, Russians make up 47.4% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Mari make up 43.9%. Other groups include Tatars (5.8%), Chuvash (0.9%), Ukrainians (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
|1926 Census||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census1|
|1 34,129 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
Osteopetrosis affects 1 newborn out of every 20,000 to 250,000 worldwide, but the odds are much higher in the Russian region of Mari El with 1 of every 14,000 newborns affected due to genetic features of the Mari people.
The religions with the most adherents in the republic are Russian Orthodoxy, the Mari native religion, the Old Believers, and Islam. The traditional Mari religion (Chimari yula) is still practiced to by many Mari people and is the main religion of the Mari of Bashkortostan, also practiced is a syncretism with Christianity. The Czars took drastic measures to force Christianity on the Mari, going so far as blowing up a holy mountain, and the persecution of the religion went on under the Soviet Union.
During the 1990s the religion was officially recognised by the State and began to revive. Mari gather at around 520 holy groves where they offer animal and vegetable sacrifices, there are about 20 festivals yearly. Although traditional religion is one of Mari El's three officially recognised religions (along with Orthodoxy and Islam) Mari religious practices have come under increasing pressure, according to human rights groups.
According to a 2012 survey 47.8% of the population of Mari El adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% adheres to the Mari native religion, 6% adheres to Islam, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Old Believers and 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without church affiliation or members of other Orthodox churches. In addition, 25% of the population is "spiritual but not religious", 6% is atheist and 4.2% follows other religions or did not answer the question.
The most developed industries are machine construction, metal working, timber, woodworking, and food industries. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the capital Yoshkar-Ola, as well as in the towns of Kozmodemyansk, Volzhsk, and Zvenigovo.
Traveling cheaply and quickly to various towns and villages within the republic is made possible through a network of fifteen train stations, fifty-three bus stations, and numerous marshrutkas. The republic is connected to different regions throughout Russia by daily trains to and from Moscow and Kazan, flights on one commercial airline from Yoshkar-Ola Airport, located near Yoshkar-Ola, and a port on the Volga River in Kozmodemyansk. There are also four other minor river ports in the republic. Regional automobile code is 12.
There are many museums located throughout the territory of the republic. The largest ones include the National Museum, the Museum of History, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Yoshkar-Ola; the Museum of Arts and History, the Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, and the Merchant Life Museum in Kozmodemyansk; and the Sheremetevo Castle Museum-reserve in Yurino. There are also museums dedicated to the poet Nikolay Mukhin and the composer Ivan Klyuchnikov-Palantay in Yoshkar-Ola and the house-museum of writer Sergei Chavayn in Chavaynur.
Five theaters are located in Yoshkar-Ola with performances in both the Russian and Mari languages, though it should be noted that the Mari National Theater, a major ethnic institution, was closed by the government.
The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) and Moscow Helsinki Group (MHG) in their 2006 report "Russian Federation: The Human Rights Situation of the Mari Minority of the Republic of Mari El", reported "The closure of the Mari National Theater, which had been a key element of Mari cultural life ever since its foundation in 1919, was perceived as a direct attack on Mari culture".
The most important facilities of higher education are Mari State Technical University and Mari State University, both located in Yoshkar-Ola. There are also more than 900 primary and secondary schools located throughout the republic.
For the past few years, the Mari El Republic has been participating in the national project "Education" ("Oбразование"), which is designed to improve education throughout Russia by bringing new technology into the classroom, improving material conditions in schools, and providing financial awards to extraordinary students and teachers. Although the Mari language is officially a state language, Mari educators and administrators have been forced from their positions in recent years and Mari-language education has been defunded, according to the U.S. State Department, the European Union and others.
The territory of the republic is one of the more ecologically pure areas of the European part of Russia with numerous lakes, rivers, and forests. As a result, it is a popular destination for tourists looking to enjoy nature.
One of the most popular destinations is Marii Chodra national park in the Ilet valley, where visitors can enjoy various activities such as boating, horseback riding, fishing, and mushrooming. Another is the Bolshaya Kokshaga National Reserve, where visitors can walk through virgin forests and observe local wildlife.
Mari El is also the site of several mineral springs, many of which are located in the Ilet valley. Many small resorts and children's camps are also located on the various lakes throughout the republic.
- Constitution of the Mari El Republic, Article 16
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of the Mari El Republic. Ethnic and Historical Reference, mari.ru; accessed September 14, 2017. (in Russian)
- Official website of the Mari El Republic. Alexander Alexandrovich Yevstifeyev (in Russian)
- Constitution, Article 6.2
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Mari El Republic Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения по Республике Марий Эл (in Russian)
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Constitution of the Mari El Republic, Article 15
- ="SportTourism">Спортивный туризм в Татарстане. По просторам Марий Эл. Справка о местности. (in Russian)
- "Alexander Yevstifeyev appointed Acting Head of Mari El". Kremlin.ru. April 6, 2017.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Russian Federation: Mari". Unhcr.org. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Russia Moves to Ban Religious Rites of Indigenous Finno-Ugric People Mari Archived October 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Russian Federation: The Human Rights Situation of the Mari Minority of the Republic of Mari El : A Study of the Titular Nationality of One of Russia's Ethnic Regions" (PDF). Mhg.ru. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". Gks.ru. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "ВПН-2010". Perepis-2010.ru. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Reference, Genetics Home. "osteopetrosis". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- "Остеопетроз рецессивный (мраморная болезнь костей) - ДНК-диагностика - Центр Молекулярной Генетики". Dnalab.ru. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Медицинская генетика Чувашии Archived February 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
- 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
- May 20, 2009 (May 20, 2009). "Russian Federation: Amnesty International launches annual report and second Memorandum to President Medvedev". Amnesty.org. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "marsu.ru". marsu.ru. Retrieved 2014-07-28.
- "Human Rights Reports". State.gov. January 20, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Fuller, Liz. "Russia: Marii El Begins To Look Like Belarus On The Volga". Rferl.org. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- 24 июня 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №21-З от 31 июля 2014 г. «О поправке 59 к Конституции Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу 7 июля 1995 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Марийская правда", 7 июля 1995 г. (June 24, 1995 Constitution of the Mari El Republic, as amended by the Law #21-Z of July 31, 2014 On Amendment 59 to the Constitution of the Mari El Republic. Effective as of July 7, 1995 (with the exception of several clauses).).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mari El.|
- (in Russian) Official website of the Mari El Republic
- (in Russian) Industry in the Mari El Republic
- Mari El Republic nature views and sceneries
- A short Meadow Mari-English dictionary
- (in Russian) Meadow Mari-Russian-Japanese dictionary
- (in Russian) About nature in Mari EL republic
- Kimberli Mäkäräinen's Meadow Mari Grammar
- (in Russian) Map of Mari El
- Daniel Kalder. Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist