Hani languages

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Hanoid
Hani
Geographic
distribution
Southern China and Indochina
Linguistic classification Sino-Tibetan
Glottolog None
haya1251  (Ha-Ya)[1]
honi1244  (Hao-Bai)[2]

The Hani languages are a group of closely related but distinct languages of the Loloish (Yi) branch of the Tibeto-Burman linguistic group. They are also referred to as the Hanoid languages by Lama (2012) and as the Akoid languages by Bradley (2007).

Approximately 1.5 million people speak these languages, mainly in China, Laos, Burma (Myanmar), and Vietnam; more than 90% of the speakers of these languages live in China. Various ethnicities that use Hani languages are grouped into a single class recognized nationality named Hani after the largest subgroup. In China, the languages of this group—which include Hani proper, Akha, and Hao-Bai (Honi and Baihong)—are considered dialects (Chinese: fangyan 方言). Western scholars, however, have traditionally classified them as separate languages.

Varieties[edit]

In China, Akha and other related languages are considered to be derivatives of Hani. They are not mutually intelligible, which means that speakers of one language do not necessarily understand speakers of the other language. In 2007, according to Ethnologue, there were almost 1.5 million speakers of all Hani varieties. Slightly more than half (760,000) of these speakers can speak Hani properly (considering age etc.). Lama (2012) groups the principal varieties of the Hani languages identified by Bradley (2007) as follows: Yunnan locations and speaker populations are from Haniyu Jianzhi 哈尼语简志 according to information from 1986.

  • Ha-Ya 哈雅 had 850,000 speakers in 1982. The representative dialect is Dazhai 大寨 and is spoken in Lüchun County.[3]
    • Hani 哈尼 (autonym: xa˨˩ni˨˩; orthography: "Haqniqdoq") has 520,000 speakers in south-central Yunnan, China and 12,500 speakers in Vietnam. In Yunnan is spoken in Honghe, Yuanyang, Lüchun, and Jinping counties.
    • Akha 阿卡 AKA Yani 雅尼 (ritual autonym: za˨˩ni˨˩; orthography: "Aqkaqdoq") has 550,000 speakers: 250,000 in China, 220,000 in Burma, 35,000 in northern Thailand, and 35,000 in northern Laos. In Yunnan, China it is spoken in Sipsongpanna. Representative dialect is Gelanghe Township 格朗和哈尼族乡, Menghai County.
    • Muda 木达 has over 2,000 speakers in Nanlianshan township 南联山乡, Jinghong City, Yunnan, China (Xu 1991).[4]
  • Hao-Bai 豪白: 210,000 speakers in Mojiang, Yuanjiang, and Pu'er counties. Representative dialect: Shuigui 水癸, Mojiang County.[5]
    • Haoni 豪尼 AKA Honi (autonym: xɒ˨˩ni˨˩) has 120,000 speakers.
    • Baihong 白宏 (autonym: pɤ˧˩xɔ̃˧˩) has 60,000 speakers.

David Bradley (2007)[6] considers the Hani-Akha (Ha-Ya) and Haoni-Baihong (Hao-Bai) languages to be part of an Akoid subgroup.

In China, all of the Bi-Ka languages (Chinese: 碧卡) are considered to form a single Hani dialect cluster (Chinese: 方言 fangyan), and the speakers are officially classified as ethnic Hani (Haniyu Jianzhi 哈尼语简志 1986). Recognized dialects include Biyue 碧约 (autonym: bi31 jɔ31), Kaduo 卡多, and Enu 峨努. In Yunnan, China, they are spoken in Mojiang, Jiangcheng, Jingdong, and other counties, with a total of 370,000 speakers. The representative dialect is that of Caiyuan 菜园, Mojiang County.[7][8]

Other Hani varieties include Luomian 罗缅, Guozuo 果作, Gehuo 格活, and Guohe 郭合 (Tang 2011).

Yunnan Provincial Gazetteer[edit]

The Yunnan Provincial Gazetteer (云南省志:少数民族语言文字志, p. 113) classifies the Hani languages as follows. Additional dialects and datapoints from Zhang (1998)[9] and Tang (2011) are also included.

  • Ha-Ya 哈雅方言, 680,000 people
    • Hani 哈尼次方言
      • Dazhai, Lüchun County dialect 绿春大寨哈尼土语 (Dazhai is the standard Hani 哈尼 dialect; also includes the datapoint of Dashuigou 大水沟[9])
      • Angluo 昂倮 ("Hhaqloldoq"):[9] Malizhai, Yuanyang County dialect 元阳麻栗寨哈尼土语[10] (also includes the datapoint of Guozong 果统[11][9])
      • Luobi 罗碧 ("Lolbiqdoq"):[9] Dazhai, Jinping County 金平大寨; Adebo, Jinping County 金平阿得博
      • Malutang, Jinping County dialect 金平马鹿塘哈尼土语[12] (also known as Loumei 楼梅)[13]
      • Lami 腊咪 ("Laqmildoq"):[9] Jiayin, Honghe County dialect 红河甲寅哈尼土语[14][15] (also includes the datapoint of Leyu 乐育[16][9])
      • Langza, Honghe County dialect 红河浪杂哈尼土语 (includes Yiche[17])
      • Luomian 罗缅: Xinyayong 新亚拥, Shangxincheng Township 上新城乡, Yuanyang County[18]
      • Guozuo 果作: Pujiao 普角, Jinshuihe Town 金水河镇, Jinping County[19]
      • Gehuo 格活: Baima Shangzhai 白马上寨村, Yingpan Township 营盘乡, Jinping County 金平县[20]
      • Guohe 郭合: Dengqu Village 登去村, Majie Township 马街乡, Yuanjiang County 元阳县[21]
    • Yani 雅尼次方言
      • Gelanghe, Xishuangbanna dialect 西双版纳格朗和雅尼土语
      • Naduo, Lancang County dialect 澜沧那多雅尼土语[22]
  • Haoni (Hao-Bai) 豪白方言, 180,000 people
  • Bi-Ka 碧卡方言, 300,000 people
    • Biyue 碧约: Caiyuan Township, Mojiang County dialect 墨江菜园乡土语
    • Kaduo 卡多: Minxing Township, Mojiang County dialect 墨江民兴乡土语[25]
    • Enu 哦怒: Dazhai, Yayi Township, Mojiang County dialect 墨江雅邑大寨土语[26]

Distribution[edit]

China[edit]

In China, Hani languages are spoken mostly in areas east of the Mekong River in the south-central Yunnan province, concentrated in the Pu'er and Honghe prefectures as well as in parts of other surrounding prefectures. Hani is also spoken in Lai Châu Province of northwestern Vietnam, northern Laos, and Shan State of northeastern Burma.

Vietnam[edit]

Edmondson (2002) reports that the Hani of Vietnam is distributed in 2 provinces of northwestern Vietnam. The earliest Hani pioneers to Vietnam probably numbered around 5 to 6 families, and arrived in Mường Tè District from Jinping County and Lüchun County in Yunnan about 325 years ago. The Hani of Phong Thổ District and Bát Xát District arrived later, about 175 years ago from Yunnan. The Hani of Vietnam claim to be able to communicate in the Hani language with ethnic Hani from different areas of Vietnam despite significant geographical barriers. Edmondson (2002), however, reported different Hani speech varieties in various parts of northwestern Vietnam, which differ mostly lexically.

Further reading[edit]

Tang Mingsheng (2011, ed.) contains word lists and ethnographies of Hani subgroups. There are 12 books in the Regional Culture Investigation of International Hani/Aka (国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查) series edited by Tang.

  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国元阳县马街哈尼族郭合人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-07409-5 (Guohe 郭合 people of Dengqu Village, Majie Township, Yuanjiang County 元阳县马街乡登去村[21])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国金平县哈尼田哈尼族罗比·罗们人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-08436-0 (Nuobi 罗比 and Nuomei 罗们 people of Hanitian 哈尼田, Jinhe Town 金河镇, Jinping County[27])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国金平县普角哈尼族果作人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-08435-3 (Guozuo 果作 people of Pujiao 普角, Jinshuihe Town 金水河镇, Jinping County[19])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国勐海县格朗和哈尼族阿卡人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-07410-1 (Akha 阿卡 people of Suhu Dazhai, Suhu Village, Gelanghe Township, Menghai County 勐海县格朗和乡苏湖村民委员会苏湖大寨自然村[28])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国新平县平掌哈尼族卡多人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-08308-0 (Kaduo people of Laomiaozhai 老缪寨, Pingzhang Township 平掌乡, Xinping County[29])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国金平县营盘哈尼族格活人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-07411-8 (Gehuo 格活 people of Baima Shangzhai, Yingpan Township, Jinping County 金平县营盘乡白马上寨村[20])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国金平县者米哈尼族哈备人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-07408-8 (Habei 哈备 people of Habei 哈备, Zhemi Township 者米乡, Jinping County[30])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国绿春县哈德哈尼族腊米人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-08434-6 (Lami 腊米 people of Hade 哈德, Sanmeng Township 三猛乡, Lüchun County[31])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国元阳县上新城哈尼族罗缅人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-08433-9 (Luomian 罗缅 people of Xinyayong 新亚拥, Shangxincheng Township 上新城乡, Yuanyang County[18])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国红河县洛恩哈尼族哈尼人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-08018-8 (Hani 哈尼 people of Luoen Township 洛恩乡, Honghe County)
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国元阳县大坪哈尼族阿邬人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-07999-1 (Awu 阿邬 people of Xiaopingzi 小坪子, Daping Township 大坪乡, Yuanyang County[32])
  • Tang Mingsheng 唐明生. 2011. 国际哈尼/阿卡区域文化调查: 中国元阳县新街哈尼族昂倮人文化实录. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press 云南人民出版社. ISBN 978-7-222-08010-2 (Angluo 昂倮 people of Xinjie Town 新街镇, Yuanyang County)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ha-Ya". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Honi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ 绿春县大兴镇大寨村委会大寨村
  4. ^ Xu Shixuan [徐世璇] (1991). 缅彝语几种音类的演变. Minzu Yuwen.
  5. ^ a b 墨江哈尼族自治县联珠镇癸能村委会水癸河自然村
  6. ^ Bradley, David. 2007. "East and Southeast Asia." In Moseley, Christopher (ed.), Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, 349-424. London & New York: Routledge.
  7. ^ 墨江哈尼族自治县联珠镇回归村委会上菜园自然村
  8. ^ 墨江哈尼族自治县联珠镇回归村委会下菜园自然村
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Zhang Peizhi [张佩芝]. 1998. Comparative vocabulary lists of the Ha-Ya dialects of the Hani language [哈尼语哈雅方言土语词汇对照]. Kunming: Yunnan Ethnic Publishing House [云南民族出版社].
  10. ^ 元阳县新街镇麻栗寨村委会
  11. ^ 元阳县牛角寨乡果统村委会
  12. ^ 金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县金河镇马鹿塘村委会
  13. ^ 云南省编辑委员会编. 2009. "金平县一区马鹿塘哈尼族社会调查", p.44. In 哈尼族社会历史调查, p.43-60. 民族出版社. ISBN 9787105087754
  14. ^ 红河县甲寅乡甲寅村委会甲寅自然村
  15. ^ Hu Dan [胡坦] & Dai Qingxia [戴庆厦]. 1964. Haniyu yuanyin de songjin 哈尼语元音的松紧. In Zhongguo Yuwen 《中国语文》 1964:1, pp.76-89.
  16. ^ 红河县乐育乡乐育村委会
  17. ^ Lan Qing [澜清]. 2009. Fertility: The kinship of China Yicyu [丰饶:哈尼族奕车人的亲属关系]. Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社]. ISBN 9787222058439
  18. ^ a b 元阳县上新城乡新城村委会新亚拥村
  19. ^ a b 金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县金水河镇普角村委会
  20. ^ a b 金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县营盘乡罗戈塘村委会白马上寨村
  21. ^ a b 元阳县马街乡登云村委会
  22. ^ 澜沧拉祜族自治县富东乡那东村
  23. ^ 墨江哈尼族自治县雅邑乡坝利村委会
  24. ^ a b c 哈尼族. In 云南民族宗教文化资源库.
  25. ^ 墨江哈尼族自治县通关镇民兴村
  26. ^ 墨江哈尼族自治县雅邑乡雅邑村委会大寨自然村
  27. ^ 金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县金河镇哈尼田村委会
  28. ^ 勐海县格朗和乡苏湖村委会大寨
  29. ^ 新平县平掌乡柏枝村民委员会老缪寨
  30. ^ 金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县者米拉祜族乡顶青村委会哈备村
  31. ^ 绿春县三猛乡哈德村委会
  32. ^ 元阳县大坪乡大坪村委会小坪子村
  • Bradley, David. 2007. East and Southeast Asia. In Moseley, Christopher (ed.), Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, 349-424. London & New York: Routledge.
  • Edmondson, Jerold A. 2002. "The Central and Southern Loloish Languages of Vietnam". Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: Special Session on Tibeto-Burman and Southeast Asian Linguistics (2002), pp. 1–13.
  • Lama, Ziwo Qiu-Fuyuan. 2012. Subgrouping of Nisoic (Yi) Languages. Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.

External links[edit]