|Created by||L. L. Zamenhof|
|Setting and usage||International auxiliary language|
|Users||Native: 350 (1996)
L2 users: estimates range from two million total (2015) to ten million total (1996)
|Dialects||Ido and other Esperantidos|
|Latin script (Esperanto alphabet)
|Sources||Vocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages, grammar from Slavic languages|
|Regulated by||Akademio de Esperanto|
Esperanto (// or /--/; Esperanto: Esperanto [espeˈranto] listen (help·info)) is a constructed international auxiliary language. With an estimated two million speakers worldwide, it is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. The Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof published the first book detailing Esperanto, Unua Libro, in Warsaw on July 26 [O.S. July 14] 1887. The name of Esperanto derives from Doktoro Esperanto (Esperanto translates as "one who hopes"), the pseudonym under which Zamenhof published Unua Libro.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Official use
- 4 Linguistic properties
- 5 Education
- 6 Community
- 7 Esperanto heritage
- 8 Modifications
- 9 Eponymous entities
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote in Unua Libro:
- "To render the study of the language so easy as to make its acquisition mere play to the learner."
- "To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with people of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not; in other words, the language is to be directly a means of international communication."
- "To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind, and disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, and en masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, and not only in last extremities, and with the key at hand."
According to the database Ethnologue (published by the Summer Institute of Linguistics), up to two million people worldwide, to varying degrees, speak Esperanto, including about 1000 to 2000 native speakers who learned Esperanto from birth. The Universal Esperanto Association has more than 5500 members in 120 countries. Its usage is highest in Europe, East Asia, and South America. lernu! is one of the most popular online learning platforms for Esperanto and reported 150,000 registered users in 2013, and sees between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors each month. With about 246,000 articles, Esperanto Wikipedia is the 32nd-largest Wikipedia as measured by the number of articles, and is the largest Wikipedia in a constructed language. On 22 February 2012, Google Translate added Esperanto as its 64th language. On 28 May 2015, the language learning platform Duolingo launched an Esperanto course for English speakers. On 26 October 2016, the course for Spanish speakers appeared on the same platform. As of 27 May 2017[update], over one million users have started to learn Esperanto on Duolingo.
The first World Congress of Esperanto was organized in Boulogne-sur-Mer (France) in 1905. Since then, congresses have been held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years during the World Wars. Although no country has adopted Esperanto officially, Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where it is spoken.
Esperanto PEN Centro is the official branch of Esperanto writers in PEN International.
Esperanto was created in the late 1870s and early 1880s by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist from Białystok, then part of the Russian Empire, but now part of Poland. According to Zamenhof, he created the language to reduce the "time and labour we spend in learning foreign tongues" and to foster harmony between people from different countries: "Were there but an international language, all translations would be made into it alone ... and all nations would be united in a common brotherhood." His feelings and the situation in Białystok may be gleaned from an extract from his letter to Nikolai Borovko:
"The place where I was born and spent my childhood gave direction to all my future struggles. In Białystok the inhabitants were divided into four distinct elements: Russians, Poles, Germans and Jews; each of these spoke their own language and looked on all the others as enemies. In such a town a sensitive nature feels more acutely than elsewhere the misery caused by language division and sees at every step that the diversity of languages is the first, or at least the most influential, basis for the separation of the human family into groups of enemies. I was brought up as an idealist; I was taught that all people were brothers, while outside in the street at every step I felt that there were no people, only Russians, Poles, Germans, Jews and so on. This was always a great torment to my infant mind, although many people may smile at such an 'anguish for the world' in a child. Since at that time I thought that 'grown-ups' were omnipotent, so I often said to myself that when I grew up I would certainly destroy this evil."— L. L. Zamenhof, in a letter to Nikolai Borovko, ca. 1895
About his goals Zamenhof wrote that he wants mankind to "learn and use", "en masse", "the proposed language as a living one". The goal for Esperanto to become a general world language was not the only goal of Zamenhof; he also wanted to "enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not; in other words, the language is to be directly a means of international communication."
After some ten years of development, which Zamenhof spent translating literature into Esperanto as well as writing original prose and verse, the first book of Esperanto grammar was published in Warsaw on 26 July 1887. The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next few decades, at first primarily in the Russian Empire and Central Europe, then in other parts of Europe, the Americas, China, and Japan. In the early years, speakers of Esperanto kept in contact primarily through correspondence and periodicals, but in 1905 the first world congress of Esperanto speakers was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Since then world congresses have been held in different countries every year, except during the two World Wars. Since the Second World War, they have been attended by an average of more than 2000 people and up to 6000 people.
Zamenhof's name for the language was simply Internacia Lingvo ("International Language").
The autonomous territory of Neutral Moresnet, between what is today Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers among its small and multiethnic population. There was a proposal to make Esperanto its official language.
However, neither Belgium nor Prussia (now within Germany) had ever surrendered its original claim to it. Around 1900, Germany in particular was taking a more aggressive stance towards the territory and was accused of sabotage and of obstructing the administrative process in order to force the issue. It was the First World War, however, that was the catalyst that brought about the end of neutrality. On 4 August 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, leaving Moresnet at first "an oasis in a desert of destruction". In 1915, the territory was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, without international recognition.
After the Great War, a great opportunity seemed to arise for Esperanto when the Iranian delegation to the League of Nations proposed that it be adopted for use in international relations, following a report by Nitobe Inazō, an official delegate of League of Nations during the 13th World Congress of Esperanto in Prague. Ten delegates accepted the proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux. Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language and saw Esperanto as a threat, effectively wielding his veto power to block the decision. However, two years later, the League recommended that its member states include Esperanto in their educational curricula. For this reason, many people see the 1920s as the heyday of the Esperanto movement. Anarchism as a political movement was very supportive during this time of anationalism as well as of the Esperanto language.
Esperanto attracted the suspicion of many states. The situation was especially pronounced in Nazi Germany, Francoist Spain up until the 1950s, and in the Soviet Union from 1937 to 1956.
In Nazi Germany, there was a motivation to forbid Esperanto because Zamenhof was Jewish, and due to the internationalist nature of Esperanto, which was perceived as "Bolshevist". In his work, Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler specifically mentioned Esperanto as an example of a language that could be used by an international Jewish conspiracy once they achieved world domination. Esperantists were killed during the Holocaust, with Zamenhof's family in particular singled out for being killed. The efforts of a minority of Esperantists to expel Jewish colleagues and align themselves with the Reich were futile and Esperanto was legally forbidden in 1935. Esperantists in German concentration camps taught the language to fellow prisoners, telling guards they were teaching Italian, the language of one of Germany's Axis allies.
In Imperial Japan, the left-wing of the Japanese Esperanto movement was forbidden, but its leaders were careful enough not to give the impression to the government that the Esperantists were socialist revolutionaries, which proved a successful strategy.
After the October Revolution of 1917, Esperanto was given a measure of government support by the new workers' states in the former Russian Empire and later by the Soviet Union government, with the Soviet Esperanto Association being established as an officially recognized organization. In his biography on Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky mentions that Stalin had studied Esperanto. However, in 1937, at the height of the Great Purge, Stalin completely reversed the Soviet government's policies on Esperanto; many Esperanto speakers were executed, exiled or held in captivity in the Gulag labour camps. Quite often the accusation was: "You are an active member of an international spy organisation which hides itself under the name of 'Association of Soviet Esperantists' on the territory of the Soviet Union." Until the end of the Stalin era it was dangerous to use Esperanto in the Soviet Union despite the fact that it was never officially forbidden to speak Esperanto.
Fascist Italy allowed the use of Esperanto, finding its phonology similar to that of Italian and publishing some tourist material in the language.
During and after the Spanish Civil War, Francoist Spain forbade anarchists, socialists and Catalan nationalists for many years, among whom the use of Esperanto was extensive, but in the 1950s the Esperanto movement was tolerated again.
There were plans at the beginning of the 20th century to establish Neutral Moresnet as the world's first Esperanto state. In addition, the self-proclaimed artificial island micronation of Rose Island used Esperanto as its official language in 1968, and another micronation, the extant Republic of Molossia, uses Esperanto as an official language alongside English.
Esperanto is the working language of several non-profit international organizations such as the Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, a left-wing cultural association which has members in over 85 countries. There is also Education@Internet, which has developed from an Esperanto organization; most others are specifically Esperanto organizations. The largest of these, the Universal Esperanto Association, has an official consultative relationship with the United Nations and UNESCO, which recognized Esperanto as a medium for international understanding in 1954. The World Esperanto Association has collaborated in 2017 with Unesco to deliver an Esperanto translation its magazine Unesco Courier (Unesko Kuriero en Esperanto).
In the summer of 1924, the American Radio Relay League adopted Esperanto as its official international auxiliary language, and hoped that the language would be used by radio amateurs in international communications, but its actual use for radio communications was negligible.
Achievement of its creator's goals
Zamenhof's goal to "enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not", as he wrote in 1887, has been achieved as the language is currently spoken by people living in more than one hundred countries.
On the other hand, one common criticism made is that Esperanto has failed to live up to the hopes of its creator, who dreamed of it becoming a universal second language. In this regard it has to be noted that Zamenhof was well aware that it may take much time, maybe even many centuries, to get this hope into reality. In his speech at the World Esperanto Congress in Cambridge in 1907 he said, "we hope that earlier or later, maybe after many centuries, on a neutral language foundation, understanding one each other, the nations will build ... a big family circle."
The Esperanto alphabet is based on the Latin script, using a one-sound-one-letter principle, except for [d͡z]. It includes six letters with diacritics: ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ (with circumflex), and ŭ (with breve). The alphabet does not include the letters q, w, x, or y, which are only used when writing unassimilated foreign terms or proper names.
The 28-letter alphabet is:
All unaccented letters are pronounced approximately as in the IPA, with the exception of c. Esperanto j and c are used in a way familiar to speakers of many European languages, but which is largely unfamiliar to English speakers: j has a y sound [j~i̯], as in yellow and boy, and c has a ts sound [t͡s], as in hits or the zz in pizza. The accented letters are a bit like h-digraphs in English: Ĉ is pronounced like English ch, and ŝ like sh. Ĝ is the g in gem, ĵ a zh sound, as in fusion or French Jacques, and the rare ĥ is like the German Bach, Scottish Gaelic, Scots and Scottish Standard English loch, or how Scouse people sometimes pronounce the 'k' in book and 'ck' in chicken.
Even with the widespread adoption of Unicode, the letters with diacritics (found in the "Latin-Extended A" section of the Unicode Standard) can cause problems with printing and computing, because they are not found on most physical keyboards and are left out of certain fonts.
There are two principal workarounds to this problem, which substitute digraphs for the accented letters. Zamenhof, the inventor of Esperanto, created an "h-convention", which replaces ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, and ŭ with ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, and u, respectively. If used in a database, a program in principle could not determine whether to render, for example, ch as c followed by h or as ĉ, and would fail to render, for example, the word senchava properly. A more recent "x-convention" has gained ground since the advent of computing. This system replaces each diacritic with an x (not part of the Esperanto alphabet) after the letter, producing the six digraphs cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, and ux.
There are computer keyboard layouts that support the Esperanto alphabet, and some systems use software that automatically replaces x- or h-convention digraphs with the corresponding diacritic letters (for example, Amiketo for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux, Esperanta Klavaro for Windows Phone, and Gboard and AnySoftKeyboard for Android).
Criticisms are made of the letters with circumflex diacritics, which some find odd or cumbersome, along with their being invented specifically for Esperanto rather than borrowed from existing languages; as well as being arguably unnecessary, as for example with the use of ĥ instead of x and ŭ instead of w.
The phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and semantics are based on the Indo-European languages spoken in Europe. The sound inventory is essentially Slavic, as is much of the semantics, whereas the vocabulary derives primarily from the Romance languages, with a lesser contribution from Germanic languages and minor contributions from Slavic languages and Greek. Pragmatics and other aspects of the language not specified by Zamenhof's original documents were influenced by the native languages of early authors, primarily Russian, Polish, German, and French. Paul Wexler proposes that Esperanto is relexified Yiddish, which he claims is in turn a relexified Slavic language, though this model is not accepted by mainstream academics.
Esperanto has been described as "a language lexically predominantly Romanic, morphologically intensively agglutinative, and to a certain degree isolating in character". Typologically, Esperanto has prepositions and a pragmatic word order that by default is subject–verb–object. Adjectives can be freely placed before or after the nouns they modify, though placing them before the noun is more common. New words are formed through extensive prefixing and suffixing.
Esperanto words are mostly derived by stringing together roots, grammatical endings, and at times prefixes and suffixes. This process is regular, so that people can create new words as they speak and be understood. Compound words are formed with a modifier-first, head-final order, as in English (compare "birdsong" and "songbird," and likewise, birdokanto and kantobirdo). Speakers may optionally insert an o between the words in a compound noun if placing them together directly without the o would make the resulting word hard to say or understand.
The different parts of speech are marked by their own suffixes: all common nouns end in -o, all adjectives in -a, all derived adverbs in -e, and all verbs in one of six tense and mood suffixes, such as the present tense -as. Nouns and adjectives have two cases: nominative for grammatical subjects and in general, and accusative for direct objects and (after a preposition) to indicate direction of movement.
Singular nouns used as grammatical subjects end in -o, plural subject nouns in -oj (pronounced [oi̯] like English "oy"). Singular direct object forms end in -on, and plural direct objects with the combination -ojn ([oi̯n]; rhymes with "coin"): -o- indicates that the word is a noun, -j- indicates the plural, and -n indicates the accusative (direct object) case. Adjectives agree with their nouns; their endings are singular subject -a ([a]; rhymes with "ha!"), plural subject -aj ([ai̯], pronounced "eye"), singular object -an, and plural object -ajn ([ai̯n]; rhymes with "fine").
The suffix -n, besides indicating the direct object, is used to indicate movement and a few other things as well.
The six verb inflections consist of three tenses and three moods. They are present tense -as, future tense -os, past tense -is, infinitive mood -i, conditional mood -us and jussive mood -u (used for wishes and commands). Verbs are not marked for person or number. Thus, kanti means "to sing", mi kantas means "I sing", vi kantas means "you sing", and ili kantas means "they sing".
Word order is comparatively free. Adjectives may precede or follow nouns; subjects, verbs and objects may occur in any order. However, the article la "the", demonstratives such as tiu "that" and prepositions (such as ĉe "at") must come before their related nouns. Similarly, the negative ne "not" and conjunctions such as kaj "and" and ke "that" must precede the phrase or clause that they introduce. In copular (A = B) clauses, word order is just as important as in English: "people are animals" is distinguished from "animals are people".
The vocabulary, orthography, phonology, and semantics, are all thoroughly European. The vocabulary, for example, draws about two-thirds from Romance and one-third from Germanic languages; the syntax is Romance; and the phonology and semantics are Slavic. The grammar is arguably more European than not, but Claude Piron among others argues that the derivation system is not particularly European, though the inflection is.
Esperanto is frequently accused of being inherently sexist, because the default form of some nouns is masculine while a derived form is used for the feminine, which is said to retain traces of the male-dominated society of late 19th-century Europe of which Esperanto is a product. Some masculine nouns, primarily titles and kin terms, such as sinjoro "Mr, sir" vs. sinjorino "Ms, lady" and patro "father" vs. patrino "mother". In addition, nouns that denote persons and whose definitions are not explicitly male are often assumed to be male unless explicitly made female, such as doktoro, a PhD doctor (male or unspecified) versus doktorino, a female PhD. This is analogous to the situation with the English suffix -ess, as in baron/baroness, waiter/waitress etc. Esperanto pronouns are similar. As in English, li "he" may be used generically, whereas ŝi "she" is always female.
Esperanto has 23 consonants, five vowels, and two semivowels that combine with the vowels to form six diphthongs. (The consonant /j/ and semivowel /i̯/ are both written j, and the uncommon consonant /dz/ is written with the digraph dz, which is the only consonant that doesn't have its own letter.) Tone is not used to distinguish meanings of words. Stress is always on the second-last vowel in fully Esperanto words unless a final vowel o is elided, which occurs mostly in poetry. For example, familio "family" is [fa.mi.ˈli.o], with the stress on the second i, but when the word is used without the final o (famili’), the stress remains on the second i: [fa.mi.ˈli].
The 23 consonants are:
The sound /r/ is usually an alveolar trill [r], but can also be a uvular trill [ʀ], a uvular fricative [ʁ], and an alveolar approximant [ɹ]. Many other forms such an alveolar tap [ɾ] are done and accepted in practice. The /v/ is normally pronounced like English v, but may be pronounced [ʋ] (between English v and w) or [w], depending on the language background of the speaker. A semivowel /u̯/ normally occurs only in diphthongs after the vowels /a/ and /e/, not as a consonant /w/. Common, if debated, assimilation includes the pronunciation of nk as [ŋk] and kz as [ɡz].
A large number of consonant clusters can occur, up to three in initial position (as in stranga, "strange") and four in medial position (as in instrui, "teach"). Final clusters are uncommon except in foreign names, poetic elision of final o, and a very few basic words such as cent "hundred" and post "after".
There are also two semivowels, /i̯/ and /u̯/, which combine with the monophthongs to form six falling diphthongs: aj, ej, oj, uj, aŭ, and eŭ.
Since there are only five vowels, a good deal of variation in pronunciation is tolerated. For instance, e commonly ranges from [e] (French é) to [ɛ] (French è). These details often depend on the speaker's native language. A glottal stop may occur between adjacent vowels in some people's speech, especially when the two vowels are the same, as in heroo "hero" ([he.ˈro.o] or [he.ˈro.ʔo]) and praavo "great-grandfather" ([pra.ˈa.vo] or [pra.ˈʔa.vo]).
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The following short extract gives an idea of the character of Esperanto. (Pronunciation is covered above; the Esperanto letter j is pronounced like English y.)
- «En multaj lokoj de Ĉinio estis temploj de la drako-reĝo. Dum trosekeco oni preĝis en la temploj, ke la drako-reĝo donu pluvon al la homa mondo. Tiam drako estis simbolo de la supernatura estaĵo. Kaj pli poste, ĝi fariĝis prapatro de la plej altaj regantoj kaj simbolis la absolutan aŭtoritaton de la feŭda imperiestro. La imperiestro pretendis, ke li estas filo de la drako. Ĉiuj liaj vivbezonaĵoj portis la nomon drako kaj estis ornamitaj per diversaj drakofiguroj. Nun ĉie en Ĉinio videblas drako-ornamentaĵoj, kaj cirkulas legendoj pri drakoj.»
- English translation:
- In many places in China, there were temples of the dragon-king. During times of drought, people would pray in the temples that the dragon-king would give rain to the human world. At that time the dragon was a symbol of the supernatural creature. Later on, it became the ancestor of the highest rulers and symbolised the absolute authority of a feudal emperor. The emperor claimed to be the son of the dragon. All of his personal possessions carried the name "dragon" and were decorated with various dragon figures. Now dragon decorations can be seen everywhere in China and legends about dragons circulate.
Below are listed some useful Esperanto words and phrases along with IPA transcriptions:
|Good morning||Bonan matenon||[ˈbo.nan ma.ˈte.non]|
|Good evening||Bonan vesperon||[ˈbo.nan ves.ˈpe.ron]|
|Good night||Bonan nokton||[ˈbo.nan ˈnok.ton]|
|Goodbye||Ĝis (la) revido||[ˈdʒis (la) re.ˈvi.do]|
|What is your name?||Kio estas via nomo?||[ˈki.o ˌes.tas ˌvi.a ˈno.mo]|
|My name is Marco.||Mia nomo estas Marko||[ˌmi.a ˈno.mo ˌes.tas ˈmar.ko]|
|How are you?||Kiel vi fartas?||[ˈki.el vi ˈfar.tas]|
|I am well.||Mi fartas bone||[mi ˈfar.tas ˈbo.ne]|
|Do you speak Esperanto?||Ĉu vi parolas Esperante?||[ˈtʃu vi pa.ˈro.las ˌes.pe.ˈran.te]|
|I don't understand you||Mi ne komprenas vin||[mi ˌne kom.ˈpre.nas ˌvin]|
|You're welcome||Ne dankinde||[ˌne.dan.ˈkin.de]|
|Forgive me/Excuse me||Pardonu min||[par.ˈdo.nu ˈmin]|
|I love you||Mi amas vin||[mi ˈa.mas ˌvin]|
|One beer, please||Unu bieron, mi petas||[ˈu.nu bi.ˈe.ron, mi ˈpe.tas]|
|Where is the toilet?||Kie estas la necesejo?||[ˈki.e ˈes.tas ˈla ˌne.tse.ˈse.jo]|
|What is that?||Kio estas tio?||[ˈki.o ˌes.tas ˈti.o]|
|That is a dog||Tio estas hundo||[ˈti.o ˌes.tas ˈhun.do]|
|We will love!||Ni amos!||[ni ˈa.mos]|
|I am a beginner in Esperanto.||Mi estas komencanto de Esperanto||[mi ˈes.tas ˌko.men.ˈtsan.to de ˌes.pe.ˈran.to]|
The core vocabulary of Esperanto was defined by Lingvo internacia, published by Zamenhof in 1887. This book listed 900 roots; these could be expanded into tens of thousands of words using prefixes, suffixes, and compounding. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto dictionary, Universala Vortaro, which had a larger set of roots. The rules of the language allowed speakers to borrow new roots as needed; it was recommended, however, that speakers use most international forms and then derive related meanings from these.
Since then, many words have been borrowed, primarily (but not solely) from the European languages. Not all proposed borrowings become widespread, but many do, especially technical and scientific terms. Terms for everyday use, on the other hand, are more likely to be derived from existing roots; komputilo "computer", for instance, is formed from the verb komputi "compute" and the suffix -ilo "tool". Words are also calqued; that is, words acquire new meanings based on usage in other languages. For example, the word muso "mouse" has acquired the meaning of a computer mouse from its usage in English. Esperanto speakers often debate about whether a particular borrowing is justified or whether meaning can be expressed by deriving from or extending the meaning of existing words.
Some compounds and formed words in Esperanto are not entirely straightforward; for example, eldoni, literally "give out", means "publish", paralleling the usage of certain European languages (such as German). In addition, the suffix -um- has no defined meaning; words using the suffix must be learned separately (such as dekstren "to the right" and dekstrumen "clockwise").
There are not many idiomatic or slang words in Esperanto, as these forms of speech tend to make international communication difficult—working against Esperanto's main goal.
Instead of derivations of Esperanto roots, new roots are taken from European languages in the endeavor to create an international language.
Esperanto speakers learn the language through self-directed study, online tutorials, and correspondence courses taught by volunteers. More recently, free teaching websites, like lernu! and Duolingo, are available.
Esperanto instruction is rarely available at schools, including four primary schools in a pilot project under the supervision of the University of Manchester, and by one count at a few universities. However, outside China and Hungary, these mostly involve informal arrangements rather than dedicated departments or state sponsorship. Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest had a department of Interlinguistics and Esperanto from 1966 to 2004, after which time instruction moved to vocational colleges; there are state examinations for Esperanto instructors. Additionally, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poland offers a diploma in Interlinguistics. The Senate of Brazil passed a bill in 2009 that would make Esperanto an optional part of the curriculum in public schools, although mandatory if there is demand for it. As of 2015[update] the bill is still under consideration by the Chamber of Deputies.
Various educators have estimated that Esperanto can be learned in anywhere from one quarter to one twentieth the amount of time required for other languages. Claude Piron, an Esperanto-Activist and Chinese–English–Russian–Spanish translator for the United Nations, argued that Esperanto is far more intuitive than many ethnic languages: "Esperanto relies entirely on innate reflexes [and] differs from all other languages in that you can always trust your natural tendency to generalize patterns. ... The same neuropsychological law [—called by] Jean Piaget generalizing assimilation—applies to word formation as well as to grammar."
The Institute of Cybernetic Pedagogy at Paderborn (Germany) has compared the length of study time it takes natively French-speaking high-school students to obtain comparable 'standard' levels in Esperanto, English, German, and Italian. The results were:
- 2,000 hours studying German
- 1,500 hours studying English
- 1,000 hours studying Italian (or any other Romance language)
- 150 hours studying Esperanto.[unreliable source?]
Four primary schools in Britain, with 230 pupils, are currently following a course in "propaedeutic Esperanto"—that is, instruction in Esperanto to raise language awareness and accelerate subsequent learning of foreign languages—under the supervision of the University of Manchester. As they put it,
- Many schools used to teach children the recorder, not to produce a nation of recorder players, but as a preparation for learning other instruments. [We teach] Esperanto, not to produce a nation of Esperanto-speakers, but as a preparation for learning other languages.
Studies have been conducted in New Zealand, United States, Germany, Italy and Australia. The results of these studies were favorable and demonstrated that studying Esperanto before another foreign language expedites the acquisition of the other, natural language. This appears to be because learning subsequent foreign languages is easier than learning one's first foreign language, whereas the use of a grammatically simple and culturally flexible auxiliary language like Esperanto lessens the first-language learning hurdle. In one study, a group of European secondary school students studied Esperanto for one year, then French for three years, and ended up with a significantly better command of French than a control group, who studied French for all four years.
Geography and demography
Esperanto is by far the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. Speakers are most numerous in Europe and East Asia, especially in urban areas, where they often form Esperanto clubs. Esperanto is particularly prevalent in the northern and central countries of Europe; in China, Korea, Japan, and Iran within Asia; in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico in the Americas; and in Togo in Africa.
Countering a common criticism against Esperanto, the statistician Svend Nielsen has found there to be no significant correlation between the number of Esperanto speakers and similarity of a given national mother language to Esperanto. He concludes that Esperanto tends to be more popular in countries that are rich, with widespread Internet access and that tend to contribute more to science and culture. Linguistic diversity within a country was found to have a slight inverse correlation with Esperanto popularity.
Number of speakers
An estimate of the number of Esperanto speakers was made by Sidney S. Culbert, a retired psychology professor at the University of Washington and a longtime Esperantist, who tracked down and tested Esperanto speakers in sample areas in dozens of countries over a period of twenty years. Culbert concluded that between one and two million people speak Esperanto at Foreign Service Level 3, "professionally proficient" (able to communicate moderately complex ideas without hesitation, and to follow speeches, radio broadcasts, etc.). Culbert's estimate was not made for Esperanto alone, but formed part of his listing of estimates for all languages of more than one million speakers, published annually in the World Almanac and Book of Facts. Culbert's most detailed account of his methodology is found in a 1989 letter to David Wolff. Since Culbert never published detailed intermediate results for particular countries and regions, it is difficult to independently gauge the accuracy of his results.
In the Almanac, his estimates for numbers of language speakers were rounded to the nearest million, thus the number for Esperanto speakers is shown as two million. This latter figure appears in Ethnologue. Assuming that this figure is accurate, that means that about 0.03% of the world's population speak the language. Although it is not Zamenhof's goal of a universal language, it still represents a level of popularity unmatched by any other constructed language.
Marcus Sikosek (now Ziko van Dijk) has challenged this figure of 1.6 million as exaggerated. He estimated that even if Esperanto speakers were evenly distributed, assuming one million Esperanto speakers worldwide would lead one to expect about 180 in the city of Cologne. Van Dijk finds only 30 fluent speakers in that city, and similarly smaller-than-expected figures in several other places thought to have a larger-than-average concentration of Esperanto speakers. He also notes that there are a total of about 20,000 members of the various Esperanto organizations (other estimates are higher). Though there are undoubtedly many Esperanto speakers who are not members of any Esperanto organization, he thinks it unlikely that there are fifty times more speakers than organization members.
Finnish linguist Jouko Lindstedt, an expert on native-born Esperanto speakers, presented the following scheme to show the overall proportions of language capabilities within the Esperanto community:
- 1,000 have Esperanto as their native language.
- 10,000 speak it fluently.
- 100,000 can use it actively.
- One million understand a large amount passively.
- Ten million have studied it to some extent at some time.
In 2017, doctoral student Svend Nielsen has estimated around 63,000 Esperanto speakers worldwide, taking into account association memberships, user-generated data from Esperanto websites and census statistics. This number, however, was disputed by statistician Sten Johansson, who questioned the reliability of the source data and highlighted a wide margin of error, the latter point with which Nielsen agrees. Both have stated, however, that this new number is likely more realistic than some earlier projections.
In the absence of Dr. Culbert's detailed sampling data, or any other census data, it is impossible to state the number of speakers with certainty. According to the website of the World Esperanto Association:
- Numbers of textbooks sold and membership of local societies put "the number of people with some knowledge of the language in the hundreds of thousands and possibly millions".
Native Esperanto speakers, denaskuloj, have learned the language from birth from Esperanto-speaking parents. This usually happens when Esperanto is the chief or only common language in an international family, but sometimes occurs in a family of devoted Esperantists. The 15th edition of Ethnologue cited estimates that there were 200 to 2000 native speakers in 1996, but these figures were removed from the 16th and 17th editions. As of 1996, there were approximately 350 attested cases of families with native Esperanto speakers.
Esperantists can access an international culture, including a large body of original as well as translated literature. There are more than 25,000 Esperanto books, both originals and translations, as well as several regularly distributed Esperanto magazines. In 2013 a museum about Esperanto opened in China. Esperantists use the language for free accommodations with Esperantists in 92 countries using the Pasporta Servo or to develop pen pals through Esperanto Koresponda Servo.
Historically, much Esperanto music, such as Kaj Tiel Plu, has been in various folk traditions. There is also a variety of classical and semi-classical choral music, both original and translated, as well as large ensemble music that includes voices singing Esperanto texts. Lou Harrison, who incorporated styles and instruments from many world cultures in his music, used Esperanto titles and/or texts in several of his works, most notably La Koro-Sutro (1973). David Gaines used Esperanto poems as well as an excerpt from a speech by Dr. Zamenhof for his Symphony No. One (Esperanto) for mezzo-soprano and orchestra (1994–98). He wrote original Esperanto text for his Povas plori mi ne plu (I Can Cry No Longer) for unaccompanied SATB choir (1994).
Detractors of Esperanto occasionally criticize it as "having no culture". Proponents, such as Prof. Humphrey Tonkin of the University of Hartford, observe that Esperanto is "culturally neutral by design, as it was intended to be a facilitator between cultures, not to be the carrier of any one national culture". The late Scottish Esperanto author William Auld wrote extensively on the subject, arguing that Esperanto is "the expression of a common human culture, unencumbered by national frontiers. Thus it is considered a culture on its own."
A number of Esperanto associations also advance education in and about the international language Esperanto and aim to preserve and promote the culture and heritage of Esperanto. Poland added Esperanto to its list of Intangible heritage in 2014.
Some authors of works in Esperanto are:
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Esperanto has been used in a number of films and novels. Typically, this is done either to add the exotic flavour of a foreign language without representing any particular ethnicity, or to avoid going to the trouble of inventing a new language. The Charlie Chaplin film The Great Dictator (1940) showed Jewish ghetto shop signs in Esperanto. Two full-length feature films have been produced with dialogue entirely in Esperanto: Angoroj, in 1964, and Incubus, a 1965 B-movie horror film which is also notable for starring William Shatner shortly before he began working on Star Trek.
A language school teaching "Entrenationo" (representing a satire on Esperanto) is featured in Graham Greene's novel The Confidential Agent, which was made into a film starring Charles Boyer and Lauren Bacall (1945). Other amateur productions have been made, such as a dramatization of the novel Gerda Malaperis (Gerda Has Disappeared). In Stamboul Train, Greene used Esperanto as the language on signs at the main train station in Budapest. A number of mainstream films in national languages have used Esperanto in some way.
Esperanto is used as the universal language in the far future of Harry Harrison's Stainless Steel Rat and Deathworld stories. Poul Anderson's story "High Treason" takes place in a future where Earth became united politically but was still divided into many languages and cultures, and Esperanto became the language of its space armed forces, fighting wars with various extraterrestrial races. Esperanto is said to be the official language of all the peoples of Phillip Jose Farmer's "Riverworld" series.
The opening song to the popular video game Final Fantasy XI, "Memoro de la Ŝtono", was written in Esperanto. It was the first game in the series that was played online, and would have players from both Japan and North America (official European support was added after the North American launch) playing together on the same servers, using an auto-translate tool to communicate. The composer, Nobuo Uematsu, felt that Esperanto was a good language to symbolize worldwide unity.
In the geek fiction novel "Off to Be the Wizard", Esperanto is programmed as the language that triggers all of the wizard's spells. Philip, Martin's teacher, explains that this is because "no one really speaks Esperanto and it's easy to learn".
Esperanto is also found in the Image Comics series Saga as the language Blue, spoken by the horned inhabitants of Wreath. It is rendered in blue-colored text. Blue is generally only spoken by inhabitants of Wreath, while most other cultures use a universal language that appears to be simply named "Language." Some Wreath inhabitants use translator rings to communicate with those who don't speak Blue. Magic seems to be activated via the linguistic medium of Blue.
In the television show Red Dwarf, which begins in the late 22nd century, crewman Arnold Rimmer constantly spends his time trying to learn Esperanto and failing, even compared to his bunkmate Dave Lister who only maintains a casual interest. Additionally many of the signs around the ship Red Dwarf are written in both English and Esperanto. The novel Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers states that, although not required, it is widely expected that officers in the Space Corps be fluent in the language, hence Rimmer's interest.
In 1921 the French Academy of Sciences recommended using Esperanto for international scientific communication. A few scientists and mathematicians, such as Maurice Fréchet (mathematics), John C. Wells (linguistics), Helmar Frank (pedagogy and cybernetics), and Nobel laureate Reinhard Selten (economics) have published part of their work in Esperanto. Frank and Selten were among the founders of the International Academy of Sciences in San Marino, sometimes called the "Esperanto University", where Esperanto is the primary language of teaching and administration.
Commerce and trade
Esperanto business groups have been active for many years. The French Chamber of Commerce did research in the 1920s and reported in The New York Times in 1921 that Esperanto seemed to be the best business language.
Goals of the movement
Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote already in 1887: to create an easy language, to create a language ready to use "whether the language be universally accepted or not" and to find some means to get many people learn the language. So Zamenhof's intention was not only to create an easy-to-learn language to foster international understanding as a general language, but also to create a language for immediate use by a (small) language community. Esperanto was to serve as an international auxiliary language, that is, as a universal second language, not to replace ethnic languages. This goal was widely shared among Esperanto speakers in the early decades of the movement. Later, Esperanto speakers began to see the language and the culture that had grown up around it as ends in themselves, even if Esperanto is never adopted by the United Nations or other international organizations.
Esperanto speakers who want to see Esperanto adopted officially or on a large scale worldwide are commonly called finvenkistoj, from fina venko, meaning "final victory". It has to be noted that there are two kinds of "finvenkismo"–"desubismo" and "desuprismo"; the first aims to spread Esperanto between ordinary people ("desube", from below) aiming to form a steadily growing community of Esperanto speakers. The second aims to act from above ("desupre"), beginning with politicians. Zamenhof considered the first way to have a better perspective, as "for such affairs as ours, governments come with their approval and help usually only, when everything is already completely finished".
Those who focus on the intrinsic value of the language are commonly called raŭmistoj, from Rauma, Finland, where a declaration on the short-term improbability of the "fina venko" and the value of Esperanto culture was made at the International Youth Congress in 1980. However the "Manifesto de Raŭmo" clearly mentions the intention to further spread the language: "We want to spread Esperanto to put into effect its positive values more and more, step by step".
In 1996 the Prague Manifesto was adopted at the annual congress of the World Esperanto Association (UEA); it was subscribed by individual participants and later by other Esperanto speakers.
Symbols and flags
The earliest flag, and the one most commonly used today, features a green five-pointed star against a white canton, upon a field of green. It was proposed to Zamenhof by Irishman Richard Geoghegan, author of the first Esperanto textbook for English speakers, in 1887. The flag was approved in 1905 by delegates to the first conference of Esperantists at Boulogne-sur-Mer. A version with an "E" superimposed over the green star is sometimes seen. Other variants include that for Christian Esperantists, with a white Christian cross superimposed upon the green star, and that for Leftists, with the color of the field changed from green to red.
In 1987, a second flag design was chosen in a contest organized by the UEA celebrating the first centennial of the language. It featured a white background with two stylised curved "E"s facing each other. Dubbed the "jubilea simbolo" (jubilee symbol), it attracted criticism from some Esperantists, who dubbed it the "melono" (melon) because of the design's elliptical shape. It is still in use, though to a lesser degree than the traditional symbol, known as the "verda stelo" (green star).
Esperanto has been placed in many proposed political situations. The most popular of these is the Europe–Democracy–Esperanto, which aims to establish Esperanto as the official language of the European Union. Grin's Report, published in 2005 by François Grin, found that the use of English as the lingua franca within the European Union costs billions annually and significantly benefits English-speaking countries financially. The report considered a scenario where Esperanto would be the lingua franca, and found that it would have many advantages, particularly economically speaking, as well as ideologically.
Russian Esperanto writer Nikolai Nekrasov was arrested during the Stalinist repressions of the late 1930s, accused of being "an organizer and leader of a fascist, espionage, terrorist organization of Esperantists", and executed on 4 October 1938. Another Esperanto writer Vladimir Varankin was executed on 3 October 1938.
The Bahá'í Faith encourages the use of an auxiliary international language. The Baha'i's believe that it will not be the language of the future, although it has great potential in this role, as it has not been chosen by the people. `Abdu'l-Bahá praised the ideal of Esperanto, and there was an affinity between Esperantists and Bahá'ís during the late 19th century and early 20th century.
On February 12, 1913, `Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to the Paris Esperanto Society,
Now, praise be to God that Dr. Zamenhof has invented the Esperanto language. It has all the potential qualities of becoming the international means of communication. All of us must be grateful and thankful to him for this noble effort; for in this way he has served his fellowmen well. With untiring effort and self-sacrifice on the part of its devotees Esperanto will become universal. Therefore every one of us must study this language and spread it as far as possible so that day by day it may receive a broader recognition, be accepted by all nations and governments of the world, and become a part of the curriculum in all the public schools. I hope that Esperanto will be adopted as the language of all the future international conferences and congresses, so that all people need acquire only two languages—one their own tongue and the other the international language. Then perfect union will be established between all the people of the world. Consider how difficult it is today to communicate with various nations. If one studies fifty languages one may yet travel through a country and not know the language. Therefore I hope that you will make the utmost effort, so that this language of Esperanto may be widely spread
Lidia Zamenhof, daughter of L. L. Zamenhof, became a Bahá'í around 1925. James Ferdinand Morton, Jr., an early member of the Bahá'í Faith in Greater Boston, was vice-president of the Esperanto League for North America. Ehsan Yarshater, the founding editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, notes how as a child in Iran he learned Esperanto and that when his mother was visiting Haifa on a Bahá'í pilgrimage he wrote her a letter in Persian as well as Esperanto. At the request of 'Abdu’l-Baha, Agnes Baldwin Alexander became an early advocate of Esperanto and used it to spread the Bahá’í teachings at meetings and conferences in Japan.
Today there exists an active sub-community of Bahá'í Esperantists and various volumes of Bahá'í literature have been translated into Esperanto. In 1973, the Bahá'í Esperanto-League for active Bahá'í supporters of Esperanto was founded.
In 1908, spiritist Camilo Chaigneau wrote an article named "Spiritism and Esperanto" in the periodic La Vie d'Outre-Tombe recommending the use of Esperanto in a "central magazine" for all spiritists and esperantists. Esperanto then became actively promoted by spiritists, at least in Brazil, initially by Ismael Gomes Braga and František Lorenz; the latter is known in Brazil as Francisco Valdomiro Lorenz, and was a pioneer of both spiritist and Esperantist movements in this country.
The first translation of the Bible into Esperanto was a translation of the Tanakh or Old Testament done by L. L. Zamenhof. The translation was reviewed and compared with other languages' translations by a group of British clergy and scholars before its publication at the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1910. In 1926 this was published along with a New Testament translation, in an edition commonly called the "Londona Biblio". In the 1960s, the Internacia Asocio de Bibliistoj kaj Orientalistoj tried to organize a new, ecumenical Esperanto Bible version. Since then, the Dutch Remonstrant pastor Gerrit Berveling has translated the Deuterocanonical or apocryphal books in addition to new translations of the Gospels, some of the New Testament epistles, and some books of the Tanakh or Old Testament. These have been published in various separate booklets, or serialized in Dia Regno, but the Deuterocanonical books have appeared in recent editions of the Londona Biblio.
Christian Esperanto organizations include two that were formed early in the history of Esperanto:
- 1910—The International Union of Catholic Esperantists. Two Roman Catholic popes, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, have regularly used Esperanto in their multilingual urbi et orbi blessings at Easter and Christmas each year since Easter 1994.
- 1911—The International League of Christian Esperantists.
Individual churches using Esperanto include:
- The Quaker Esperanto Society, with activities as described in an issue of "The Friend"
- 1910—First Christadelphian publications in Esperanto.
- There are instances of Christian apologists and teachers who use Esperanto as a medium. Nigerian pastor Bayo Afolaranmi's "Spirita nutraĵo" (spiritual food) Yahoo mailing list, for example, has hosted weekly messages since 2003.
Chick Publications, publisher of Protestant fundamentalist themed evangelistic tracts, has published a number of comic book style tracts by Jack T. Chick translated into Esperanto, including "This Was Your Life!" ("Jen Via Tuta Vivo!")
Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran called on Muslims to learn Esperanto and praised its use as a medium for better understanding among peoples of different religious backgrounds. After he suggested that Esperanto replace English as an international lingua franca, it began to be used in the seminaries of Qom. An Esperanto translation of the Qur'an was published by the state shortly thereafter.
Though Esperanto itself has changed little since the publication of the Fundamento de Esperanto (Foundation of Esperanto), a number of reform projects have been proposed over the years, starting with Zamenhof's proposals in 1894 and Ido in 1907. Several later constructed languages, such as Universal, were based on Esperanto.
In modern times, attempts have been made to eliminate perceived sexism in the language, such as Riism.
There are some geographical and astronomical features named after Esperanto, or after its creator L. L. Zamenhof. These include Esperanto Island in Zed Islands off Livingston Island, and the asteroids 1421 Esperanto and 1462 Zamenhof discovered by Finnish astronomer and Esperantist Yrjö Väisälä.
- Arcaicam Esperantom
- Color argument
- Comparison between Esperanto and Ido
- Comparison between Esperanto and Interlingua
- Comparison between Esperanto and Novial
- Distributed Language Translation
- Encyclopedias in Esperanto
- Esperantic Studies Foundation
- Esperanto library
- Esperanto Wikipedia
- Indigenous Dialogues
- List of Esperanto magazines
- List of largest languages without official status
- North American Summer Esperanto Institute
- (English) Semajno de Kulturo Internacia
- "Esperanto" (20th ed.). Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- Lindstedt, Jouko. "Re: Kiom?" (posting). DENASK-L@helsinki.fi, 22 April 1996.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Esperanto". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2
- Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0
- Zasky, Jason (2009-07-20), "Discouraging Words", Failure Magazine, archived from the original on 2011-11-19,
But in terms of invented languages, it's the most outlandishly successful invented language ever. It has thousands of speakers — even native speakers — and that's a major accomplishment as compared to the 900 or so other languages that have no speakers. – Arika Okrent
- "Doktoro Esperanto, Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof". Global Britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
- "After half an hour I could speak more Esperanto than Japanese, I had studied during four years in secondary school" – Richard Delamore. In: "Kiel la esperantistoj povas denove avangardi?", Kontakto 277 (2017:1), p. 20, TEJO
- L.L.Zamenhof. International Language. Warsaw. 1887
- "How Many People Speak Esperanto? - Esperanto.net".
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- "User locations". Pasporta Servo. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "La programo de la Kleriga lundo en UK 2013". Universala Esperanto Asocio. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
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- Brants, Thorsten (February 22, 2012). "Tutmonda helplingvo por ĉiuj homoj". Google Translate Blog. Google. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Esperanto for English speakers now in Beta!". Duolingo. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
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- "Duolingo: Incubator". Duolingo. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
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- "Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj (AIS) San-Marino". Ais-sanmarino.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- The letter is quoted in Esperanto: The New Latin for the Church and for Ecumenism, by Ulrich Matthias. Translation from Esperanto by Mike Leon and Maire Mullarney
- "Dr. Esperanto' International Language". L. Samenhof. Retrieved 2016-04-15. Facsimile of the title page of the First Book in English, 1889. "Esperanto". Ling.ohio-state.edu. 2003-01-25. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Musgrave, George Clarke. Under Four Flags for France, 1918, p. 8
- "Anarkiistoj estis inter la pioniroj de la disvastigo de Esperanto. En 1905 fondiĝis en Stokholmo la unua anarkiisma Esperanto-grupo. Sekvis multaj aliaj: en Bulgario, Ĉinio kaj aliaj landoj. Anarkiistoj kaj anarki-sindikatistoj, kiuj antaŭ la Unua Mondmilito apartenis al la nombre plej granda grupo inter la proletaj esperantistoj, fondis en 1906 la internacian ligon Paco-Libereco, kiu eldonis la Internacian Socian Revuon. Paco-libereco unuiĝis en 1910 kun alia progresema asocio, Esperantista Laboristaro. La komuna organizaĵo nomiĝis Liberiga Stelo. Ĝis 1914 tiu organizaĵo eldonis multe da revolucia literaturo en Esperanto, interalie ankaŭ anarkiisma. Tial povis evolui en la jaroj antaŭ la Unua Mondmilito ekzemple vigla korespondado inter eŭropaj kaj japanaj anarkiistoj. En 1907 la Internacia Anarkiisma Kongreso en Amsterdamo faris rezolucion pri la afero de internacia lingvo, kaj venis dum la postaj jaroj similaj kongresaj rezolucioj. Esperantistoj, kiuj partoprenis tiujn kongresojn, okupiĝis precipe pri la internaciaj rilatoj de la anarkiistoj.""ESPERANTO KAJ ANARKIISMO" by Will Firth
- Sutton, Geoffrey (2008). Concise Encyclopedia of the Original Literature of Esperanto, 1887–2007. Mondial. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-1-59569-090-6. LCCN 2008023213. OCLC 230802330. OL 12559707W.
Hitler specifically attacked Esperanto as a threat in a speech in Munich (1922) and in Mein Kampf itself (1925). The Nazi Minister for Education banned the teaching of Esperanto on 17 May 1935 ... all Esperantists were essentially enemies of the state, serving through their language Jewish‑internationalist aims.
- "About ESW and the Holocaust Museum". Esperantodc.org. 1995-12-05. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Lins, Ulrich (1988). Die gefährliche Sprache. Gerlingen: Bleicher. p. 112. ISBN 3-88350-023-2.
- Lins, Ulrich (2008). "Esperanto as language and idea in China and Japan" (PDF). Language Problems and Language Planning. John Benjamins. 32 (1): 47–60. doi:10.1075/lplp.32.1.05lin. ISSN 0272-2690. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "Donald J. Harlow, The Esperanto Book, chapter 7". Literaturo.org. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Leon Trotsky. "Chapter IV: The period of reaction: Leon Trotsky: Stalin –An appraisal of the man and his influence (1940)". Marxists.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Ulrich Lins: Die gefährliche Sprache. Die Verfolgung der Esperantisten unter Hitler und Stalin. Bleicher: Gerlingen, 1988, p. 220 and elsewhere.
- "La utilización del esperanto durante la Guerra Civil Española". Nodo50.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Lins, Ulrich (2017-02-10). Dangerous Language — Esperanto under Hitler and Stalin. Springer. ISBN 9781137549174.
- Michael Byram and Adelheid Hu: Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. 2nd edition. Taylor and Francis, Hoboken 2013, ISBN 978-1-136-23554-2, page 229.
- "Esperanto and Anarchism | The Anarchist Library". theanarchistlibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
- "What is Esperanto?". Republic of Molossia. 226 Mary Lane, Dayton, Nevada, United States. Archived from the original on 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
Esperanto is the second language of the Republic of Molossia.
- "China Interreta Informa Centro-esperanto.china.org.cn". china.org.cn.
- h"Radio Vatikana". Archived from the original on 2016-02-11.
- "The Maneuver Enemy website". Kafejo.com. 2004-06-02. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "Esperanto | language". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
- "An Update on Esperanto". New York: Universala Esperanto‑Asocio. Archived from the original on 2016-02-05.
Based on the number of textbooks sold and membership ..., the number of people with some knowledge of Esperanto is in the hundreds of thousands and possibly millions. ... In 1954 ... UNESCO ... recognised that the achievements of Esperanto match UNESCO’s aims and ideals, and official relations were established between UNESCO and UEA.
- Report on the international petition in favour of Esperanto, Unesco, 1st June 1954
- "World Government Documents (Personal)". Worldservice.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Saul Levin, 1993. "Can an Artificial Language Be More than a Hobby? The Linguistic and Sociological Obstacles". In Ian Richmond (ed.) Aspects of internationalism: language & culture.
- The Christian Century, 1930, 47:846
- "(...) ni esperas, ke pli aŭ malpli frue, eble post multaj jarcentoj,
Sur neŭtrala lingva fundamento,
Komprenante unu la alian,
La popoloj faros en konsento
Unu grandan rondon familian." L. L. Zamenhof. Kongresaj paroladoj. Jekaterinburg (Ruslanda Esperantisto). 1995, p. 23–24
- These letters occasionally have these values in English as well, for example the j in hallelujah, Jarlsberg, or Jägermeister, and the c in the name of composer Penderecki, Czech president Václav Havel, or the mineral letovicite.
- Amiketo and Tajpi are keyboard layouts which support the Esperanto alphabet for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
- "Esperanta Klavaro". windowsphone.com.
- "Critiche all'esperanto ed alle altre lingue internazionali". Parracomumangi.altervista.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Wexler, Paul (2002). Two-tiered Relexification in Yiddish: Jews, Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian Dialect. De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 9783110898736.
- Bernard Spolsky,The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic History, Cambridge University Press, 2014 pp.157,180ff. p.183
- Blanke, Detlev (1985). "Internationale Plansprachen. Eine Einführung" [International Planned Languages. An Introduction]. Sammlung Akademie-Verlag. Akademie-Verlag. ISSN 0138-550X.
- Laŭ la komuna opinio de gvidaj fakuloj de la Instituto, Esperanto apartenas al la kategorio de vivaj lingvoj. Pli detale traktante la temon, konsiderante la historion kaj la nunan staton de Esperanto, a.) ĝi estas grandmezure normigita, b.) amplekse sociiĝinta, c.) ne-etna viva lingvo, kiu en sekundara lingva komunumo plenumas ĉiujn eblajn lingvajn funkciojn, kaj samtempe ĝi funkcias kiel pera lingvo. – Ĉi supre diritaj respegulas la sciencan starpunkton de nia Instituto. "Malgranda fina venko". El Hungario
- Le Defi des Langues by Claude Piron. Harmattan, 1994.
- "Similar languages to Esperanto". www.ezglot.com. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- Bertilo (in Esperanto)
-  (in Italian)
- Kalocsay & Waringhien, Plena analiza gramatiko (1985:73)
- Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) Plena analiza gramatiko de Esperanto, § 17, 22
- "PMEG - Bazaj elparolaj reguloj - Konsonanta variado". PMEG.
- "Fundamento de Esperanto - Gramatiko Franca". Akademio de Esperanto.
- "Fundamento de Esperanto - Gramatiko Angla". Akademio de Esperanto.
- Maire Mullarney Everyone's Own Language, p147, Nitobe Press, Channel Islands, 1999
- La Bona Lingvo, Claude Piron. Vienna: Pro Esperanto, 1989. La lingvo volas eleganti, ne elefanti. "The language wants to be elegant, not elephantine."
- "Esperanto en universitatoj". Uea.Org. 2003-04-17. Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "enhavo". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
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- "Diploma in Interlinguistics (ESPERANTO)". Archived from the original on 2012-04-18.
- "Atividade Legislativa – Projetos e Matrias" (in Portuguese). Senado.gov.br. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "PL 6162/2009 – Projetos de Lei e Outras Proposições – Câmara dos Deputados" (in Portuguese). Camara.gov.br. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Entidades manifestam apoio à proposta de incluir ensino de Esperanto na grade de disciplinas da rede pública". Senado Federal – Portal de Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Is Esperanto four times easier to learn?". Esperanto-USA. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Piron, Claude: "The hidden perverse effect of the current system of international communication", published lecture notes
- Flochon, Bruno, 2000, « L'espéranto », in Gauthier, Guy (ed.) Langues: une guerre à mort, Panoramiques. 4e trim. 48: 89–95. Cited in François Grin, L'enseignement des langues étrangères comme politique publique (French)
- "Springboard to Languages". Springboard2languages.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Report: Article in Enciklopedio de Esperanto, volume I, p.436, on the pedagogic value of Esperanto.
- Report: Christian Rudmick, The Wellesley College Danish-Esperanto experiment.
- Report: Edward Thorndike, Language Learning. Bureau of Publications of Teachers College, 1933. Interlingua.org
- Helen S. Eaton, "The Educational Value of an Artificial Language." The Modern Language Journal, #12, pp. 87–94 (1927). Blackwellpublishing.com Archived 2009-07-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- Protocols of the annual November meetings in Paderborn "Laborkonferencoj: Interlingvistiko en Scienco kaj Klerigo" (Working conference: Interlinguistics in Science and Education), which can be obtained from the Institute of Pedagogic Cybernetics in Paderborn. Also in the works by Frank, Lobin, Geisler, and Meder.
- "Study International Language (known as Esperanto) Commission, Interministerial Decree" (PDF). Internacialingovo.org. 1993. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Bishop, Alan J. (1997). "Ekparoli Project Report 1994–1997". Clayton, Australia: Monash University. Archived from the original on 2003-12-04.
- Williams, N. (1965) 'A language teaching experiment', Canadian Modern Language Review 22.1: 26–28
- Byram, Michael (2001). Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. Routledge. p. 464. ISBN 0-415-33286-9.
- Sikosek, Ziko M. Esperanto Sen Mitoj ("Esperanto without Myths"). Second edition. Antwerp: Flandra Esperanto-Ligo, 2003.
- "Afrika Agado" (in Esperanto). Pagesperso-orange.fr. Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Svend Vendelbo Nielsen (September 24, 2017). "Explaining the density of Esperanto speakers with language and politics". Kalkulinda. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
- Culbert, Sidney S. Three letters about his method for estimating the number of Esperanto speakers, scanned and HTMLized by David Wolff
- "Number of Esperantists (methods)". Panix.com. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "Nova takso: 60.000 parolas Esperanton" [New estimate: 60.000 speak Esperanto] (in Esperanto). Libera Folio. 2017-02-13. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
- "Ethnologue report for language code:epo". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Jouko Lindstedt (January 2006). "Native Esperanto as a Test Case for Natural Language" (PDF). University of Helsinki—Department of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures.
- Esperanto at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
- Esperanto at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Corsetti, Renato (1996). A mother tongue spoken mainly by fathers. Language Problems and Language Planning 20: 3, 263–73
- "China's first Esperanto museum opens". Xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Ellemberg, Enrique (2014-06-08) [1st pub. 1996]. "Esperanto Koresponda Servo". Fremont, California: Esperanto Fremont. Archived from the original on 2016-01-11.
- Ziko van Dijk. Sed homoj kun homoj: Universalaj Kongresoj de Esperanto 1905–2005. Rotterdam: UEA, 2005.
- Szilvási László. "International Esperanto meetings". Eventoj.hu. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "musicexpress.com.br". Musicexpress.com.br. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Auld, William. La Fenomeno Esperanto ("The Esperanto Phenomenon"). Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1988.
- Update 79, oct. 2017, p. 2, Esperanto Association of Britain (EAB)
- Polish Intangible Cultural Heritage List, Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa (Polish national heritage institute), p. 14-15, 2014.
- Peter Glover Forster (1982). The Esperanto Movement. Walter de Gruyter. p. 181. ISBN 978-90-279-3399-7.
- "Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj rande de pereo". Libera Folio (in Esperanto). 2011-09-05. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Frank, Helmar; Fössmeier, Reinhard (2000). AIS — La Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino / Die Internationale Akademie der Wissenschaften San Marino. Institut für Kybernetik. p. 449. ISBN 978-3-929853-12-4.
- "PARIS BUSINESS MEN WOULD USE ESPERANTO; Chamber of Commerce Committee Finds It Useful as a Code in International Trade". The New York Times. 16 February 1921. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- Feeney, Mark (1999-05-12). "Esperanto: A surprising 2 million speakers worldwide get their words' worth; from the 'planned language' created in the 19th century". The Boston Globe. p. F01. ISSN 0743-1791. (Subscription required (. ))
Esperantists speak of the fina venko, or ‘final victory’. The concept is that eventually every moderately educated person ... will know Esperanto enough to ... order a cup of coffee ...
- "La celo, por kiu ni laboras, povas esti atingita per du vojoj: aŭ per laborado de homoj privataj, t.e. de la popolaj amasoj, aŭ per dekreto de la registaroj. Plej kredeble nia afero estos atingita per la vojo unua, ĉar al tia afero, kiel nia, la registaroj venas kun sia sankcio kaj helpo ordinare nur tiam, kiam ĉio estas jam tute preta." L. L. Zamenhof. Speech in Washington. 1910
- Silfer, Giorgio (1999). "Kion signifas Raŭmismo". La Ondo de Esperanto (in Esperanto). Kaliningrad, Russia. Archived from the original on 2002-05-30.
- "Ni celas disvastigi Esperanton por pli kaj pli, iom post iom realigi ĝiajn pozitivajn valorojn". Manifesto de Raŭmo
- "Flags of Esperanto". Flagspot.net. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Esperanto flag: The jubilee symbol". Fotw.net. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "Esperanto flag". Fotw.net. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "The Oomoto Esperanto portal". Oomoto.or.jp. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "The Baha'i Faith and Esperanto". Bahaa Esperanto-Ligo ( B.E.L. ). Archived from the original on 2006-10-17. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Zamenhof, Lidia". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 368. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Esperanto". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 134–135. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Esslemont, J.E. (1980) . "Universal Language". Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 165. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.
- Katz, Esther (1999). "Morton, Jr., James Ferdinand (1870-1941)". The Margaret Sanger Papers Electronic Edition: Margaret Sanger and The Woman Rebel, 1914-1916. Model Editions Partnership. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- "Interview with Professor Ehsan Yarshater, the Founder and Editor of Encyclopedia Iranica". Payvand News. March 25, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- (in Portuguese) O Espiritismo e o Esperanto (Spiritism and Esperanto)
- "Uma só língua, uma só bandeira, um só pastor: Spiritism and Esperanto in Brazil by David Pardue" (PDF). University of Kansas Libraries. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-23. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- "La Sankta Biblio – "Londona text"". Archived from the original on 2006-12-22. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- "Linguistic Democracy - Christmas 2010, Benedict XVI and Radicals: the use of Esperanto remains to be the only thing in common".
- Eric Walker (27 May 2005). "Esperanto Lives On". The Friend.
- Botten J. The Captive Conscience 2002 p.110 re. Esperanto speaking Christadelphians in Tsarist Russia.
- "Internacia Biblio-Misio". Biblio-misio.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Bayo Afolaranmi. "Spirita nutraĵo" (in Esperanto). Retrieved 2006-09-13.
- "Esperanto "This Was Your Life"". Chick.com. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- "ELEKTITAJ ĈAPITROJ EL LA LIBRO DE MORMON". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- "Esperanto – Have any governments opposed Esperanto?". Donald J. Harlow. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- "Esperanto in Iran (in Persian)". Porneniu. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- "Esperanto Island". Data.aad.gov.au. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Emily van Someren. Republication of the thesis 'The EU Language Regime, Lingual and Translational Problems'.
- Ludovikologia dokumentaro I Tokyo: Ludovikito, 1991. Facsimile reprints of the Unua Libro in Russian, Polish, French, German, English and Swedish, with the earliest Esperanto dictionaries for those languages.
- Fundamento de Esperanto. HTML reprint of 1905 Fundamento, from the Academy of Esperanto.
- Esperanto Lessons. Including the alphabet, adjectives, nouns, plural, gender, numbers, phrases, grammar, vocabulary, verbs, exam, audio, and translation.
- Auld, William. La Fenomeno Esperanto ("The Esperanto Phenomenon"). Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1988.
- Butler, Montagu C. Step by Step in Esperanto. ELNA 1965/1991. ISBN 0-939785-01-3.
- DeSoto, Clinton (1936). 200 Meters and Down. West Hartford, Connecticut, US: American Radio Relay League, p. 92.
- Crystal, David, article "Esperanto" in The New Penguin Encyclopedia, Penguin Books, 2002.
- Crystal, David, How Language Works (pages 424–5), Penguin Books, 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-101552-1.
- Everson, Michael. "The Alphabets of Europe: Esperanto" (PDF). (25.4 KB). Evertype, 2001.
- Forster, Peter G. The Esperanto Movement. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1982. ISBN 90-279-3399-5.
- Gledhill, Christopher. The Grammar of Esperanto: A Corpus-Based Description. Second edition. Lincom Europa, 2000. ISBN 3-89586-961-9.
- Harlow, Don. The Esperanto Book. Self-published on the web (1995–96).
- Okrent, Arika. In the Land of Invented Languages.
- Wells, John. Lingvistikaj aspektoj de Esperanto ("Linguistic aspects of Esperanto"). Second edition. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1989.
- Zamenhof, Ludovic Lazarus, Dr. Esperanto's International Language: Introduction & Complete Grammar The original 1887 Unua Libro, English translation by Richard H. Geoghegan; HTML online version 2006. Print edition (2007) also available from ELNA or UEA.
- Patterson, Robert; Huff, Stanley M. (November 1999), "The Decline and Fall of Esperanto", Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 6 (6): 444–446, doi:10.1136/jamia.1999.0060444, PMC , PMID 10579602
|Esperanto edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Esperanto at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- UEA.org – Website of the World Esperanto Association
- Kurso Saluton! – International Course
- Esperanto Bookshelf at Project Gutenberg
- Esperanta babilejo – Esperanto chat
- Eldonejo Mistera Sturno Short-story e-books with linked dictionary defining all uncommon terms.
- 1985 UNESCO resolutions
- Most similar languages to Esperanto
- The culture of Esperanto