|Regions with significant populations|
Asturias c. 1 million
|Castilian Spanish (majority), Asturian (minority), Eonavian (minority).|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Leonese, Cantabrians, Castilians, Galicians, other Spaniards|
|Part of a series on|
Asturians (Asturian: asturianos) are the native ethnic group of the autonomous community of Principality of Asturias, in Spain, as well as smaller communities in the Spanish provinces of León, Zamora and Cantabria.
Culture and society
The Asturians have Visigothic, Latin and Celtiberian (Astures) cultural origins most notably found in the Asturian language. A 2008 study indicated that a large minority of the population seemed to show a haplogroup J ancestry as well, but the sample size was too small to be reliable.
Their religious affiliation is predominantly Roman Catholic.
The Asturian language, once widely spoken by Asturians, has been in decline since the early 20th century although around 40% of Asturians still speak the language (10% as a mother tongue). Whilst not recognised as an official language in Spain, it is protected under the Autonomous Statute legislation, and efforts to preserve the language continue to be made. In the western part of Asturias, Eonavian (which is a transition language between Galician-Portuguese and Asturian) is also spoken, and its promotion also falls under the responsibility of Law 1/1998.
The most famous regional dish is Fabada Asturiana, a rich stew made with large white beans (fabes), pork shoulder (llacón), morciella, chorizu, and saffron (azafrán). Apple groves foster the production of the traditional alcoholic drink, a natural cider (sidra). It is a very dry cider, and unlike French or English natural ciders, uses predominantly acidic apples, rather than sweet or bittersweet. Sidra is traditionally poured in by an expert server (or escanciador): the bottle is raised high above his or her head to oxygenate the brew as it moves into the glass below.
Asturians were involved in the development of the New World and their descendants in present-day Latin America, esp. in Argentina and Uruguay; and other countries where Asturians moved to during the rule of the Spanish Empire. The Industrial Revolution came to Asturias after 1830 with the discovery and systematic exploitation of coal and iron resources. At the same time, there was significant migration to the Americas (i.e. Mexico, Cuba and Puerto Rico); those who succeeded overseas often returned to their native land much wealthier. These entrepreneurs were known collectively as 'Indianos', for having visited and made their fortunes in the West Indies and beyond. The heritage of these wealthy families can still be seen in Asturias today: many large 'modernista' villas are dotted across the region, as well as cultural institutions such as free schools and public libraries. Asturian communities, social clubs, sporting teams, financial banks and amateur vocal groups are still found in Mexico and Argentina as well across South America.
Tens of thousands of Asturians moved to the United States en masse, mainly to agricultural industries of Florida and California and the zinc smelters of West Virginia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They were also involved in working in industrial bases of Midwestern factory towns. (see Asturian-American). A characteristic of the Asturian wherever they go is their attachment to the land of their birth. This is reflected in the 82 Asturian Centers in America.
In the case of Europe, the largest Asturian community sits in Belgium, with 7,180 members. France, 3,777, Germany, 2,645, and Switzerland, 2,595, are also traditional countries of Asturian emigration.
Notable people of Asturian origin
- Pelagius of Asturias
- Alfonso I of Asturias
- Silo of Asturias
- Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
- Fernando Villaamil
- Leopoldo Alas
- Federico Romero
- Indalecio Prieto
- Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meirás
- Severo Ochoa
- Santiago Carrillo
- Margarita Salas
- Corín Tellado
- Javier Fernández
- Xuan Bello
- Queen Letizia of Spain
- Luis Enrique Martínez
- David Villa
- Tania González Peñas
- Santi Cazorla
- Juan Mata
- Fernando Alonso
- Astures (one of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula)
- Kingdom of Asturias
- Languages of Spain
This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- /Elecciones a la Junta General del Principado de Asturias de 25 de marzo de 2012
- "[T]he value in Asturias is unlikely to be reliable, because of small sample size." Susan M. Adams; Elena Bosch; Patricia L. Balaresque; Stéphane J. Ballereau; Andrew C. Lee; Eduardo Arroyo; Ana M. López-Parra; Mercedes Aler; Marina S. Gisbert Grifo; Maria Brion; Angel Carracedo; João Lavinha; Begoña Martínez-Jarreta; Lluis Quintana-Murci; Antònia Picornell; Misericordia Ramon; Karl Skorecki; Doron M. Behar; Francesc Calafell & Mark A. Jobling (December 12, 2008). "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". Am J Hum Genet. 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC . PMID 19061982.
- Bauske 1995
- "Asturian Center Building". Old Havana Web.
The Asturian Center opened ... in 1927. ... Today it houses the Universal Art Collection belonging to the National Museum of Fine Arts.
- "Asturian Center, Old Havana, Cuba". cuba-museums-guide.com.
Address: Calle O´Reilly e/ Zulueta y Monserrate. La Habana Vieja. Ciudad de La Habana.
- Cervantes-Rodriguez, Margarita. "International Migration in Cuba". ISBN 0271035390.
Prominent among these clubs was the Centro Asturiano (Asturian Center), which was created in 1886 as an umbrella organization for immigrants from Asturias.
- "Havana: Centro Asturiano (Asturian Center), built in 1927, now part of Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana (Museum of Fine Arts)". Branson DeCou Digital Archive.
- "Introduction & Statement of Purpose". Asturian-American Migration Forum. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008.
These Asturian immigrants established an informal but lively network which connected Spain, Cuba, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, California, and other locations within the US.
- History of the Centro Asturiano de Tampa Building and Social Club
- FICA – Federación Internacional de Centros Asturianos
- Centro Asturiano de Nueva York