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1960 ( was a MCMLX) leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1960th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 960th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 60th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1960s decade. It is also known as the " Year of Africa" because of major events—particularly the independence of seventeen African nations—that focused global attention on the continent and intensified feelings of Pan-Africanism.
January [ edit ]
January – The
state of emergency is lifted in Kenya, officially ending the Mau Mau Uprising.
January 1 – Cameroon gains its independence from French-administered U.N. trusteeship.
January 2 – U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy (D-MA) announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
January 6 – The Associations Law comes into force in Iraq, allowing registration of political parties.
January 9 – 11 – Aswan High Dam construction begins in Egypt.
January 10 – British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan makes the Wind of Change (speech) speech for the first time.
January 14 – The Reserve Bank and Commonwealth Bank are created in Australia.
January 15 – The first televised anime, , debuts on Three Tales NHK.
January 19 – The Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan is signed in Washington, D.C.
January 21 – A coal mine collapses at Holly Country, South Africa, killing 435 miners.
January 24 – A major insurrection occurs in Algiers against French colonial policy.
January 25 – In Washington, D.C., the National Association of Broadcasters reacts to the payola scandal by threatening fines for any disc jockeys who accepted money for playing particular records.
January 28 – The National Football League announces expansion teams for Dallas to start in the 1960 NFL season, and Minneapolis–St. Paul for the 1961 NFL season.
January 30 – The African National Party is founded in Chad, through the merger of traditionalist parties.
February [ edit ]
February 3 – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan makes the Wind of Change speech to the South African Parliament in Cape Town (although he had first made the speech, to little publicity, in Accra, Gold Coast — now Ghana — on January 10).
February 5 – The first CERN particle accelerator becomes operational in Geneva, Switzerland.
February 10 – A conference about the proposed independence of the Belgian Congo begins in Brussels, Belgium.
February 13 – France tests its first atomic bomb in the Sahara Desert of Algeria.
February 18 – The 1960 Winter Olympics begin at the Squaw Valley Ski Resort, in Placer County, California.
February 26 – A New York-bound Alitalia airliner crashes into a cemetery at Shannon, Ireland, shortly after takeoff, killing 34 of the 52 persons on board.
February 29 – The 5.7 M w Agadir earthquake shakes coastal Morocco with a maximum perceived intensity of X (, destroying Agadir, and leaving 12,000 dead and another 12,000 injured. Extreme)
The iconic picture of Che Guevara."
April 9 – Gunman David Pratt shoots South African Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd in Johannesburg, wounding him seriously.
April 12 – Eric Peugeot, the youngest son of the founder of the Peugeot Corporation, is kidnapped in Paris. Then, he is released on April 15 in exchange for $300,000 in ransom.
April 19 – April Revolution: South Korean students hold a nationwide pro-democracy protest against President Syngman Rhee, eventually leading him to resign from that office.
April 21 – In Brazil, the country's capital ( Federal District) is relocated from the city of Rio de Janeiro to the new city, Brasília, in the highlands. The actual city of Rio de Janeiro becomes the State of Guanabara.
April 27 – Togo gains independence from France, with the French-administered United Nations Trust Territory being terminated.
Francis Gary Powers wearing special pressure suit for stratospheric flying
May 6 – United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1960 into law.
May 9 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announces that it will approve birth control as an additional indication for Searle's Enovid, making it the world's first approved oral contraceptive pill.
May 10 – The U.S. nuclear-powered submarine USS , under the command of Captain Triton Edward L. Beach Jr., completes the first underwater circumnavigation of the Earth (codenamed Operation Sandblast).
May 11 – In Buenos Aires, four Mossad agents abduct the fugitive Nazi criminal against humanity, Adolf Eichmann, in order that he can be taken to Israel and put on trial. (Eichmann is later convicted and executed).
May 13 – A joint Swiss and Austrian expedition makes the first ascent of the Asian mountain, Dhaulagiri, the world's 7th highest mountain.
May 14 – The Kenyan African National Congress Party is founded in Kenya, when 3 political parties join forces.
May 15 – The satellite Sputnik 4 is launched into orbit by the Soviet Union.
May 18 – Real Madrid beats Eintracht Frankfurt 7–3 at Hampden Park, Glasgow and wins the 1959–60 European Cup (football).
May 20 – In Japan, police carry away socialist members of the Diet of Japan. The Diet next approves a mutual security treaty with the United States.
May 22 – The 9.4–9.6 M w Valdivia earthquake affected Chile with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XII ( Extreme). This megathrust earthquake ruptured from Arauco to Chiloé Archipelago, causing the most powerful earthquake on record and a destructive basin-wide tsunami.
May 23 – Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion announces that Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann has been captured.
May 27 – In Turkey, a bloodless military coup d'état removes President Celâl Bayar and installs General Cemal Gürsel as the head of state.
May 30 – Cemal Gürsel forms the new government of Turkey (its 24th government, composed mostly of so-called "technocrats").
July 4 – Following the admission of the State of Hawaii as the 50th state in August 1959, the new 50-star Flag of the United States is first officially flown over Philadelphia.
July 10 – The Soviet Union national football team defeats the Yugoslavian national football team 2–1 in Paris to win the first European Soccer Championship.
July 12 – Chin Peng is exiled from Malaysia to Thailand and the Malayan state of emergency is lifted.
July 13 – U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy is nominated for President of the United States at the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles.
July 14 – The United Nations Security Council decides to send troops to Katanga to oversee the withdrawal of Belgian troops.
July 20 – Ceylon elects Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike as its Prime Minister, the world's first elected female head of government. She takes office the following day.
July 21 – Francis Chichester, English navigator and yachtsman, arrives at New York City aboard his yacht, Gypsy Moth II, crossing the Atlantic Ocean solo in a new record of just forty days.
July 25 – The Woolworth Company's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, the location of a sit-in that had sparked demonstrations by Negroes across the Southern United States, serves a meal to its first black customer.
July 25 – July 28 – In Chicago, the 1960 Republican National Convention nominates Vice President Richard Nixon as its candidate for President of the United States, and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., as its candidate to become the new Vice-President.
August 1 – Dahomey, now known as Benin, becomes independent from France.
August 3 – Niger becomes independent from France.
August 5 – Upper Volta, now known as Burkina Faso, becomes independent from France.
August 9 – The government of Laos is overthrown in a coup.
August 11 – Chad becomes independent from France.
August 13 – Ubangi-Shari becomes independent from France, as the " Central African Republic". It later becomes the " Central African Empire" for some years.
August 15 – Middle Congo becomes independent from France, as Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville).
Joseph Kittinger parachutes from a balloon over New Mexico at an altitude of about 102,800 feet (31,333 meters). Kittinger sets world records for: high-altitude jump; free-fall by falling 16.0 miles (25.7 kilometers) before opening his parachute; and the fastest speed attained by a human being without mechanical or chemical assistance, about 982 k.p.h (614 m.p.h.). (Kittinger survives more or less uninjured, and he is still alive in Florida as of 2013 . Felix Baumgartner breaks his record in 2012.) The Mediterranean island of
Cyprus receives its independence from the United Kingdom.
The newly named
Beatles begin a 48-night residency at the Indra club in Hamburg, West Germany.
Gabon becomes independent from France. The trial of the American
U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers begins in Moscow.
Cold War: In Moscow, American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to 10 years in prison for espionage.
Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches the satellite Sputnik 5, with the dogs Belka and Strelka (the Russian for "Squirrel" and "Little Arrow"), 40 mice, two rats and a variety of plants. This satellite returns to earth the next day and all animals are recovered safely.
August 20 – Senegal breaks away from the Mali Federation, declaring its independence.
August 29 – Hurricane Donna kills 50 people in Florida and New England.
September [ edit ]
September 2 – The first elections of the Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration are held. The Tibetan community observes this date as Democracy Day.
September 5 – Poet Léopold Sédar Senghor is the first elected President of Senegal.
September 6 – William Hamilton Martin and Bernon F. Mitchell, two American cryptologists, announce their defection to the Soviet Union at a press conference in Moscow.
September 8 – In Huntsville, Alabama, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally dedicates the Marshall Space Flight Center (which had been activated by NASA on July 1).
September 9 – The first regular season American Football League game takes place at Boston's Nickerson Field. The Denver Broncos defeated the Boston Patriots 13–10.
September 10 – 1960 Summer Olympic Games: Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia wins the gold medal in the marathon, running barefoot in a world time and becoming the first person from Sub-Saharan Africa to win Olympic gold.
September 22 – Mali, the sole remaining member of the "Mali Federation" following the withdrawal of Senegal one month earlier, declares its full independence as the Republic of Mali.
September 26 – The leading candidates for President of the United States, Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy, make the first televised debate.
September 30 – The television animated sitcom, premieres on The Flintstones ABC.
October [ edit ]
November [ edit ]
December [ edit ]
The African and
Malagasy Organisation for Economic Cooperation (OAMCE) (Organisation Africain et Malagache de Coopération Économique) is established.
Édith Piaf's recording of " Non, je ne regrette rien" is released in France.
December 4 – The admission of Mauritania to the United Nations is vetoed by the Soviet Union.
December 7 – The United Nations Security Council is called into session by the Soviet Union in order to consider Soviet demands for the Security Council to seek the immediate release of former Congolese Premier Patrice Lumumba.
December 8 – For the first time, Mary Martin's is presented as a stand-alone two-hour special on Peter Pan NBC instead of as part of an anthology series. This version, rather than being presented live, is shown on videotape, enabling NBC to repeat it as often as they wish without having to restage it. Although nearly all of the adult actors repeat their original Broadway roles, all of the original children have, ironically, outgrown their roles and are replaced by new actors.
Charles de Gaulle's visit to Algeria is bloodied by European and Muslim rioters in Algeria's largest cities. These riots cause 127 deaths. The classic British TV series
premieres. Planned as a 13-part drama, it becomes such a success among viewers it continues to be shown five times per week through 2012. Coronation Street
December 11 – MGM's is rerun on The Wizard of Oz CBS only a year after its previous telecast, thus beginning the tradition of annual telecasts of the film.
December 12 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds a lower Federal Court ruling that the State of Louisiana's racial segregation laws are unconstitutional, and overturns them.
1960 Ethiopian coup attempt: While Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia visits Brazil, his Kebur Zabagna (Imperial Bodyguard) leads a military coup against his rule, proclaiming that the emperor's son, Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen Taffari, is the new emperor. The countries of
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua announce the formation of the Central American Common Market. The U.S. Navy's Commander Leroy Heath (pilot) and Lieutenant Larry Monroe (bombardier/navigator) establish a world flight-altitude record of 91,450 feet (27,874 m), with
payload, in an A-5 Vigilante bomber carrying 2,200 lb (1,000 kg), and better the previous world record by over four miles (6 km).
December 17 – Troops loyal to Emperor Haile Selassie in Ethiopia overcome the coup that began on December 13, returning the reins to the Emperor upon his return from a trip to Brazil. The Emperor absolves his own son of any guilt.
December 19 – Fire sweeps through the USS , to become the U.S. Navy's largest Constellation aircraft carrier, while she is under construction at the Brooklyn Navy Yard; killing 50 workers and injuring 150.
December 27 – France sets off its third A-bomb test at its nuclear weapons testing range near Reggane, Algeria.
December 31 – Last day on which the farthing, a coin first minted in England in the 13th century, is legal tender in the United Kingdom.
Date unknown [ edit ]
World population [ edit ]
World population: 3,021,475,000
Latin America: 218,300,000
North America: 204,152,000
January [ edit ]
January 2 – Naoki Urasawa, Japanese manga author and artist
January 7 – Mohammad Javad Zarif, Iranian politician, diplomat
January 13 – Kevin Anderson, American actor
January 18 – Mark Rylance, English actor, theatre director and playwright
January 22 – Michael Hutchence, Australian rock musician ( INXS) (d. 1997)
January 23 – Patrick de Gayardon, French skydiver and skysurfing pioneer (d. 1998)
January 26 – Charlie Gillingham, American keyboardist
January 28 – Robert von Dassanowsky, American cultural historian, writer and producer
January 30 – Alex Titomirov, Russian-American businessman
February [ edit ]
February 2 – Jari Porttila, Finnish sports journalist
February 4 – Jonathan Larson, American composer and playwright (d. 1996)
February 9 – Frederik Ndoci, Albanian singer, songwriter, poet, writer, actor and international Recording artist
February 14 – Jim Kelly, American football player
February 16 – Cherie Chung, Hong Kong actress
February 19 – Prince Andrew, Duke of York, British prince and second son of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh
February 23 – Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan
February 29 – Richard Ramirez, American serial killer (d. 2013)
April 1 – Michael Praed, British actor
April 2 – Linford Christie, British athlete
April 3 – Elizabeth Gracen, American beauty queen, actress and model
April 4 – Hugo Weaving, Nigerian-born Australian actor
April 10 – Fabio Golfetti, Brazilian musician and record producer ( Violeta de Outono, Gong)
April 11 – Jeremy Clarkson, English journalist, television show host and comedian
April 13 – Rudi Völler, German footballer and manager
April 14 – Brad Garrett, American actor, comedian and voice actor
April 14 – Myoma Myint Kywe, Burmese Writer and Historian
April 19 – Frank Viola, American baseball player
April 20 – John Altenburgh, American blues and jazz musician
April 22 – Tatiana Thumbtzen, American actress, model and dancer
April 25 – Michael Lohan, American television personality; father of Lindsay Lohan
April 30 – José Miguel do Carmo Nunes da Silva, Portuguese physicist
May 3 – Amy Steel, American film actress
May 6 – John Flansburgh, American singer-songwriter, half of alternative rock duo They Might Be Giants
May 7 – Adam Bernstein, American music video/television director
May 8 – Eric Brittingham, American rock bassist
May 9 – Tony Gwynn, American baseball player (d. 2014)
May 10 – Bono, Irish rock singer ( U2)
May 15 – Julian Jarrold, English film and television director and producer
May 16 – Landon Deireragea, Nauruan politician
May 17 – John Payne, British voice actor
May 19 – Yazz, British pop singer
May 21 – Jeffrey Dahmer, American serial killer (d. 1994)
May 21 – Mohanlal, South Indian Actor
May 22 – Hideaki Anno, Japanese director
May 23 – Linden Ashby, American actor
May 25 – Amy Klobuchar, American politician
May 26 – Rob Murphy, American baseball player
May 27 – Alexander Bashlachev, Soviet poet and rock musician (d. 1988)
July 1 – Kōji Ishii, Japanese voice actor
July 5 – Pruitt Taylor Vince, American actor
July 7 – Kevin A. Ford, American astronaut
July 8 – Thilo Martinho, German composer and singer-songwriter
July 9 – Charles Gavin, Brazilian drummer and producer
July 11 – Kumar Gaurav, Indian film actor
July 13 – Ian Hislop, British journalist and broadcaster
July 15 – Kim Alexis, American model and actress
July 16 – PJ Powers aka Thandeka, South African musician.
July 18 – Anne-Marie Johnson, American actress
July 28 – Harald Lesch, German physicist, astronomer, natural philosopher, author, television presenter, professor of physics
July 30 – Richard Linklater, American director
July 31 – Dale Hunter, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
August 1 – Chuck D, American rapper ( Public Enemy)
August 7 – David Duchovny, American actor
August 8 – Ulrich Maly, German politician and Mayor of Nuremberg
August 12 – Laurent Fignon, French road bicycle racer (d. 2010)
August 14 – Sarah Brightman, English soprano singer and actress
August 15 – Judy Holt, British television actress
August 17 – Sean Penn, American actor and film director
August 19 – Morten Andersen, American football player
August 23 – Chris Potter, Canadian actor and musician
August 24 – Cal Ripken Jr., American baseball player
August 29 – Viire Valdma, Estonian actress
August 30 – Chalino Sánchez, Mexican musician (d. 1992)
September [ edit ]
September 1 – Joseph Williams, American singer and film score composer
September 2 – John S. Hall, American poet and spoken-word artist
September 5 – Karita Mattila, Finnish soprano
September 10 – Colin Firth, English actor
September 11 – Annie Gosfield, American composer
September 12 – Evan Jenkins, American politician
September 19 – Yolanda Saldívar, American murderer of tejano singer Selena
September 21 – David James Elliott, Canadian actor
September 22 – Scott Baio, American actor
September 28 – Jennifer Rush, American singer
September 29 – Alan McGee, British music industry mogul and musician
September 30 – Blanche Lincoln, American politician
October [ edit ]
October 6 – Richard Jobson, Scottish rock singer-songwriter, filmmaker, and television presenter ( Skids)
October 7 – Kyosuke Himuro, Japanese singer
October 9 – Maddie Blaustein, American voice actress (d. 2008)
October 12 – Alexei Kudrin, Russian Minister of Finance
October 13 – Joey Belladonna, American heavy metal singer ( Anthrax)
October 17 – Guy Henry, English actor
October 26 – Jouke de Vries, Dutch– Frisian politician
October 28 – Landon Curt Noll, American astronomer, cryptographer, and mathematician
October 30 – Diego Maradona, Argentine footballer
October 31 – Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran
November [ edit ]
November 1 – Tim Cook, American businessman and current CEO of Apple, Inc
November 4 – Frl. Menke, German pop singer
November 5 – Tilda Swinton, British actress
November 8 – Megan Cavanagh, American actress and voice actress
November 10 – Neil Gaiman, English author
November 11 – Stanley Tucci, American actor and film director
November 12 – Dave Hackett, professional skateboarder
November 15 – Susanne Lothar, German actress (d. 2012)
November 17 – Jonathan Ross, English television presenter
November 20 – Marc Labrèche, Canadian actor and television host
November 24 – Amanda Wyss, American actress
November 26 – Harold Reynolds, American baseball player and broadcaster
December [ edit ]
December 1 – Carol Alt, American model and actress
December 4 – Glynis Nunn, Australian athlete
Steve Doll, American professional wrestler (d. 2009)
Jeff "Swampy" Marsh, American television director, writer, producer, storyboard artist, and actor
December 12 – Volker Beck, German politician
December 17 – Tarako, Japanese voice actress
December 18 – Kazuhide Uekusa, Japanese economist
December 29 – Dave Pelzer, American author
December 30 – Heather Wilson, U. S. Secretary of the Air Force
Date unknown [ edit ]
January [ edit ]
January 3 – Victor Sjöström, Swedish actor (b. 1879)
January 5 – Donald Knight, English cricketer (b. 1894)
January 9 – Elsie J. Oxenham, British children's novelist (b. 1880)
January 10 – Arthur S. Carpender, American admiral (b. 1884)
January 12 – Nevil Shute, English writer (b. 1899)
January 17 – Andrew Kennaway Henderson, New Zealand illustrator, cartoonist, and pacifist (b. 1879)
January 19 – Dadasaheb Torne, Indian filmmaker (b. 1890)
January 27 – Osvaldo Aranha, Brazilian politician (b. 1894)
January 28 – Zora Neale Hurston, American folklorist and author (b. 1891)
January 30 – J. C. Kumarappa, Indian economist (b. 1892)
February [ edit ]
May 1 – Charles Holden, British architect (b. 1875)
May 2 – Caryl Chessman, American criminal (b. 1921)
May 3 – Masa Niemi, Finnish actor (b. 1914)
May 12 – Prince Aly Khan, Pakistani United Nations ambassador (b. 1911)
May 14 – Lucrezia Bori, Spanish opera singer (b. 1887)
May 22 – İbrahim Çallı, Turkish painter (b. 1882)
May 23 – Georges Claude, French inventor (b. 1870)
May 24 – Avraham Arnon, Israeli educator and a recipient of the Israel Prize (b. 1887)
May 25 – Rafael Gómez Ortega, Spanish bullfighter (b. 1882)
May 30 – Boris Pasternak, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (declined) (b. 1890)
May 31 – Walther Funk, German Nazi politician (b. 1890)
July 2 – Margherita Bagni, Italian actress (b. 1902)
July 6 – Aneurin Bevan, British politician (b. 1897)
July 12 – Francis Xavier Gsell, Australian Roman Catholic bishop and missionary (b. 1872)
July 14 – Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie, French physicist (b. 1875)
July 17 – Pavel Peter Gojdič, Czechoslovak Roman Catholic monk and blessed (b. 1888)
July 22 – Buddy Adler, American film producer (b. 1909)
July 24 – Hans Albers, German actor and singer (b. 1891)
July 26 – Cedric Gibbons, Irish-American art director (b. 1893)
July 28 – Enrique Amorim, Uruguayan novelist (b. 1900)
July 29 – Hasan Saka, 7th Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1885)
September [ edit ]
September 1 – Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah, King of Malaysia (b. 1898)
September 4 – Alfred E. Green, American film director (b. 1889)
September 9 – Jussi Björling, Swedish tenor (b. 1911)
September 11 – Edwin Justus Mayer, American screenwriter (b. 1896)
September 13 – Leó Weiner, Hungarian composer (b. 1885)
September 22 – Melanie Klein, Austrian-British psychoanalyst (b. 1882)
September 23 – Kathlyn Williams, American stage and silent film actress (b. 1879)
September 24 – Mátyás Seiber, Hungarian composer (b. 1905)
September 27 – Sylvia Pankhurst, English suffragette (b. 1882)
September 30 – St John Philby, British Arabist (b. 1885)
October [ edit ]
October 5 – Alfred L. Kroeber, American anthropologist (b. 1876)
October 9—Sultan Khalifa bin Harub of Zanzibar (b. 1879)
October 11 – Richard Cromwell, American actor (b. 1910)
October 12 – Inejiro Asanuma, Japanese Socialist politician (assassinated) (b. 1898)
October 21 – Ma Hongbin, Chinese warlord (b. 1884)
October 24 – Yevgeny Ostashev, was the test pilot of rocket and space complexes, head of the 1st control polygon NIIP-5 ( Baikonur), Lenin prize winner, Candidate of Technical Sciences, engineer-Lieutenant Colonel.(b. 1924)
October 31 – H. L. Davis, American author (b. 1894)
November [ edit ]
November 6 – Erich Raeder, German World War II naval leader (b. 1876)
November 7 – A. P. Carter, American singer and songwriter (b. 1891)
November 12 – Lord Buckley, American monologist (b. 1906)
November 14 – Walter Catlett, American actor (b. 1889)
November 19 – Phyllis Haver, American actress (b. 1899)
November 20 – Ya'akov Cohen, Israeli poet (b. 1881)
November 23 – Allen Hobbs, 32nd Governor of American Samoa (b. 1889)
November 24 – Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia, sister of Tsar Nicholas II (b. 1882)
November 25 – Patria (b. 1924), Minerva (b. 1926), and Maria Teresa Mirabal (b. 1935), three Dominican revolutionaries (and their driver, Rufino de la Cruz)
December [ edit ]
December 2 – Fritz August Breuhaus de Groot, German architect, interior designer and designer (b. 1883)
December 5 – Hashim al-Atassi, Syrian statesman, 2nd Prime Minister of Syria and 4th President of Syria (b. 1875)
December 12 – Christopher Hornsrud, 11th Prime Minister of Norway (b. 1859)
December 13 – John Charles Thomas, American opera singer (b. 1891)
December 14 – Gregory Ratoff, Russian actor and director
December 20 – Sir Godfrey Ince, British civil servant (b. 1891)
December 22 – Ninian Comper, British architect (b. 1864)
December 25 – Alberto Maria de Agostini, Italian missionary (b. 1883)
Date unknown [ edit ]
Nobel Prizes [ edit ]
References [ edit ]