|1945 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2698|
|Balinese saka calendar||1866–1867|
|British Regnal year||9 Geo. 6 – 10 Geo. 6|
|Chinese calendar||甲申年 (Wood Monkey)|
4641 or 4581
— to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
4642 or 4582
|- Vikram Samvat||2001–2002|
|- Shaka Samvat||1866–1867|
|- Kali Yuga||5045–5046|
|Japanese calendar||Shōwa 20|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 34|
|Thai solar calendar||2488|
2071 or 1690 or 918
— to —
2072 or 1691 or 919
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1945.|
1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1945th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 945th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1940s decade. This year also marks the end of the Second World War, the deadliest conflict in human history.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
- January – WWII: Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine continues; the United States Army crosses the Siegfried Line.
- January 1 – WWII:
- January 5 – Australia recognizes the Polish Committee of National Liberation as the government of Poland.
- January 6 – A German offensive recaptures Esztergom, Hungary from the Russians.
- January 7 – WWII: British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference at Zonhoven describing his role at the Battle of the Bulge.
- January 12 – WWII: The Soviet Union begins the Vistula–Oder Offensive in Eastern Europe against the German Army.
- January 13 – WWII: The Soviet Union begins the East Prussian Offensive to eliminate German forces in East Prussia.
- January 16 – WWII: Adolf Hitler takes residence in the Führerbunker in Berlin.
- January 17
- January 18 – The Holocaust: The SS begins evacuation of Auschwitz concentration camp. Nearly 60,000 prisoners, mostly Jews, are forced to march to other locations in Germany; as many as 15,000 die. The 7,000 too sick to move are left without supplies being distributed.
- January 19
- The Holocaust: Soviet forces liberate the Łódź Ghetto; only 877 Jews of the initial population of 164,000 remain at this time.
- January 20
- January 23 – WWII:
- Hungary agrees to an armistice with the Allies.
- German Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz orders the start of Operation Hannibal, the mass evacuation by sea of German troops and civilians from the Courland Pocket, East Prussia and the Polish Corridor evacuating an estimated 800,000-900,000 German civilians and 350,000 soldiers from advancing Soviet forces.
- January 24 – WWII: AP war correspondent Joseph Morton, nine OSS men, and four SOE agents are executed by the Germans at Mauthausen concentration camp under Hitler's Commando Order of 1942 which stipulates the immediate execution of all captured Allied commandos or saboteurs without trial, even those in proper uniforms. Morton is the only Allied correspondent to be executed by the Axis during the war.
- January 26 – WWII: Infantry action at Holtzwihr, France, for which Audie Murphy is awarded the Medal of Honor.
- January 27 – The Holocaust: The Soviet Red Army liberates the Auschwitz and Birkenau concentration camps.
- January 28 – WWII: Supplies begin to reach China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
- January 30 – WWII:
- MV Wilhelm Gustloff, with over 10,000 mainly civilian Germans from Gotenhafen (Gdynia) is sunk in Gdańsk Bay by three torpedoes from the Soviet submarine S-13 in the Baltic Sea; up to 9,400, 5,000 of whom are children, are thought to have died – the greatest loss of life in a single ship sinking in history.
- Raid at Cabanatuan: 121 American soldiers and 800 Filipino guerrillas free 813 American prisoners of war from the Japanese-held camp in the city of Cabanatuan in the Philippines.
- Adolf Hitler makes his last public speech to be delivered personally, on broadcast radio, expressing the belief that Germany will triumph.
- January 31 – WWII:
- The Battle of Hill 170 in the Burma Campaign ends with the British 3rd Commando Brigade defeating the Imperial Japanese Army 54th Division causing the Japanese Twenty-Eighth Army to withdraw from the Arakan peninsula.
- Eddie Slovik is executed by firing squad near Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines for desertion, the only U.S. soldier since the American Civil War ever executed for this offense.
- February 3 – WWII:
- Battle of Manila: United States forces enter the outskirts of Manila to capture it from the Japanese Imperial Army, starting the battle. On February 4, U.S. Army forces liberate Santo Tomas Internment Camp in the city.
- The Soviet Union agrees to enter the Pacific War against Japan once hostilities against Germany are concluded.
- February 4–11 – WWII: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin hold the Yalta Conference.
- February 6 – French writer Robert Brasillach is executed for collaboration with the Germans.
- February 7 – WWII: General Douglas MacArthur returns to Manila.
- February 8 – The Alaska Anti-Discrimination Act of 1945, championed by the charismatic native leader, Elizabeth Peratrovich. The territorial Senate voted on the bill and it was passed, after being defeated just two years before in 1943 by the territorial legislature.
- February 9
- February 10 – WWII: 3,608 drown when the troopship SS General von Steuben is sunk by the Soviet submarine S-13.
- February 10–20 – WWII: Operation Kita: The Imperial Japanese Navy returns "Completion Force", containing both its Ise-class battleships, safely from Singapore to Kure in Japan despite Allied attacks.
- February 13 – WWII:
- February 14 – Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru join the United Nations.
- February 16 – WWII:
- February 19–February 20 – 980 Japanese soldiers die as a result of being attacked by long saltwater crocodiles in Ramree, Burma.
- February 19 – WWII – Battle of Iwo Jima: About 30,000 United States Marines land on Iwo Jima.
- February 21 – The last V-2-rocket is launched from Peenemünde.
- February 22 – WWII:
- Italian Front: end of the Battle of Monte Castello, after nearly three months of fighting, Brazilian troops expel German forces of a pivot point in the (Tuscan) North Apennines, where their artillery was impeding the advance of British 8th Army toward Bologna;
- Uruguay declares war on Germany and Japan.
- February 23 – WWII:
- Battle of Iwo Jima: A group of United States Marines reach the top of Mount Suribachi on the island and are photographed raising the American flag. The photo, Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima (taken by Joe Rosenthal), later wins a Pulitzer Prize.
- The 11th Airborne Division, with Filipino guerrillas, freed the captives of the Los Baños internment camp.
- The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is liberated by combined American and Filipino ground troops.
- American and Filipino troops enter Intramuros, Manila.
- The German garrison in Poznań capitulates to Red Army and Polish troops.
- Bombing of Pforzheim: Heaviest of a series of bombing raids on Pforzheim in Germany by Allied aircraft is carried out by the British Royal Air Force. As many as 17,600 people, or 31.4% of the town's population, are killed in the raid and about 83% of the town's buildings destroyed, two-thirds of its complete area and between 80 and 100% of the inner city.
- Turkey joins the war on the Allies' side.
- February 24 – The Egyptian Premier Ahmad Mahir Pasha is killed in Parliament after reading a decree.
- February 28 – In Bucharest, a violent demonstration takes place, during which the bolşevic group opens fire on the army and protesters. In response, Andrei Y. Vishinsky, USSR vice commissioner of foreign affairs and president of the Allied Control Commission for Romania, travels to Bucharest to compel Nicolae Rădescu to resign as premier.
- March 1 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt gives what will be his last address to a joint session of the United States Congress, reporting on the Yalta Conference.
- March 2
- March 3 – WWII:
- March 4
- March 5 – WWII: Brazilian troops take Castelnuovo (Vergato), in the last prior operations for the Allied Spring 1945 offensive in Italy.
- March 6
- March 7 – WWII: At the end of Operation Lumberjack, American troops seize the Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine at Remagen in Germany and begin to cross; in the next 10 days 25,000 troops with equipment are able to cross.
- March 8
- Josip Broz Tito forms a Provisional Government of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
- The Nazi authorities kill 117 Dutch men in reprisal for the attempted murder of Hanns Albin Rauter.
- Operation Sunrise: Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff meets with Allen Welsh Dulles of the United States Office of Strategic Services at Lucerne in neutral Switzerland to negotiate surrender of the Axis forces in Italy to the Allies.
- March 9–10 – WWII: Bombing of Tokyo: "Operation Meetinghouse" – USAAF B-29 bombers flying from the Mariana Islands attack Tokyo, Japan, with incendiary bombs, killing 100,000 citizens in the firebombing.
- March 9 – The film Les Enfants du Paradis premieres in Paris.
- March 11
- March 12 – WWII: Swinemünde is destroyed by the USAAF killing an estimated 8,000 to 23,000 civilians, mostly refugees saved by Operation Hannibal.
- March 15–31 – WWII: The Soviet Red Army carries out the Upper Silesian Offensive.
- March 15 – The 17th Academy Awards ceremony is held, broadcast via radio for the first time. Best Picture goes to Going My Way.
- March 16 – WWII: The Battle of Iwo Jima unofficially ends, with pockets of guerrilla resistance persisting until the official conclusion of the battle.
- March 17 – WWII: Kobe, Japan is fire-bombed by 331 B-29 bombers, killing over 8,000 people.
- March 18 – WWII: 1,250 American bombers attack Berlin.
- March 19 – WWII:
- March 21 – WWII:
- March 22
- March 24
- March 26 – WWII: The Battle of Iwo Jima officially ends, with the destruction of the remaining areas of Japanese resistance.
- March 27 – WWII: Argentina declares war on Germany and Japan.
- March 29
- March 30 – WWII:
- April 1 – WWII: Battle of Okinawa: The Tenth United States Army lands on Okinawa.
- April 4 – WWII:
- April 6 – WWII:
- Sarajevo is liberated from Nazi Germany and the Independent State of Croatia (a fascist puppet state) by Yugoslav Partisans.
- The Battle of Slater's Knoll on Bougainville Island concludes with a decisive victory for the Australian Army's 7th Brigade.
- Allied forces reach Merkers Salt Mines in Thuringia where gold reserves of the Nazi German Reichsbank are stored.
- April 7 – WWII:
- The only flight of the German ramming unit known as the Sonderkommando Elbe takes place, resulting in the loss of some 24 B-17s and B-24s of the United States Eighth Air Force.
- The Japanese battleship Yamato is sunk 200 miles (320 km) north of Okinawa while en route on a suicide mission.
- Kantarō Suzuki becomes Prime Minister of Japan.
- April 8 – The SS begins to evacuate the Buchenwald concentration camp; inmates in the Buchenwald Resistance call for American aid and overpower and kill the remaining guards.
- April 9
- WWII: The Battle of Königsberg, in East Prussia, ends with Soviet forces capturing the city.
- Abwehr conspirators Wilhelm Canaris, Hans Oster and Hans von Dohnányi are hanged at Flossenberg concentration camp, along with pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer.
- Johann Georg Elser, would-be assassin of Adolf Hitler, is executed at Dachau concentration camp.
- April 10 – WWII: Visoko is liberated by the 7th, 9th and 17th Krajina Brigades from the Tenth Division of Yugoslav Partisan forces.
- April 11 – Buchenwald concentration camp is liberated by the United States Army.
- April 12
- President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies suddenly at Warm Springs, Georgia; Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes the 33rd President of the United States and is sworn in this evening in the White House.
- WWII: The U.S. Ninth Army under General William H. Simpson crosses the Elbe River astride Magdeburg and reaches Tangermünde — only 50 miles from Berlin.
- April 14 – WWII:
- The First Canadian Army assumes military control of the Netherlands where German forces are trapped in the Atlantic wall fortifications along the coastline.
- Razing of Friesoythe: The 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division deliberately destroys the German town of Friesoythe on the orders of Major General Christopher Vokes.
- April 15 – WWII:
- April 16 – WWII:
- Battle of Berlin begins, opening with the Battle of the Oder–Neisse and the Battle of the Seelow Heights.
- Canadian forces take Harlingen, and occupy Leeuwarden and Groningen in the Netherlands.
- 7000-8000 drown when MV Goya is sunk by Soviet submarine L-3 in the Baltic Sea while evacuating German troops and civilians as part of Operation Hannibal.
- April 17 – WWII:
- April 18 – American war correspondent Ernie Pyle is killed by Japanese machine gun fire on the island of Ie Shima off Okinawa.
- April 19 – Rodgers and Hammerstein's Carousel, a musical play based on Ferenc Molnár's Liliom, opens on Broadway and becomes their second long-running stage classic.
- April 20 – WWII: On his 56th birthday Adolf Hitler leaves his Führerbunker to decorate a group of Hitler Youth soldiers in Berlin. It will be his last trip to the surface from his underground bunker.
- April 22 – WWII:
- Heinrich Himmler, through Folke Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg, puts forth an offer of German surrender to the Western Allies, but not the Soviet Union.
- Adolf Hitler privately concedes defeat in his underground Berlin bunker after learning Felix Steiner cannot mobilize enough men to launch a counterattack on the Soviet Union which has just broken through Germany.
- April 23 – WWII: Hermann Göring sends the Göring Telegram to Hitler seeking confirmation that he should take over leadership of Germany in accordance with the decree of 29 June 1941. Hitler regards this as treason.
- April 24 – Retreating German troops destroy all the bridges over the Adige in Verona, including the historic Ponte di Castelvecchio and Ponte Pietra.
- April 25
- April 25–26 – WWII: Last major strategic bombing raid by RAF Bomber Command, the destruction of the oil refinery at Tønsberg in southern Norway by 107 Avro Lancasters.
- April 26 – WWII:
- Battle of Bautzen: The last "successful" German panzer-offensive in Bautzen ends with the city recaptured.
- The British 3rd Infantry Division under General Whistler captures Bremen.
- Nazi surrenders mean the British and Canadians now control the German border with Switzerland from Basle to Lake Constance.
- April 27
- The last German formations withdraw from Finland to Norway. The Lapland War and thus, World War II in Finland, comes to an end and the Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn photograph is taken.
- U.S. Ordnance troops find the coffins of Frederick William I of Prussia, Frederick the Great, Paul von Hindenburg, and his wife.
- The Western Allies flatly reject any offer of surrender by Germany other than unconditional on all fronts.
- April 28
- April 29
- At the royal palace in Caserta, Lieutenant-Colonel Viktor von Schweinitz (representing General Heinrich von Vietinghoff) and SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Eugen Wenner (representing Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff) sign an unconditional instrument of surrender for all Axis powers forces in Italy, taking effect on May 2. Italian General Rodolfo Graziani orders the Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano forces under his command to lay down their arms.
- Dachau concentration camp is surrendered to U.S. forces, who kill SS guards at the camp and the nearby hamlet of Webling.
- Brazilian forces liberate the commune of Fornovo di Taro, Italy, from German forces.
- Operation Manna: British Avro Lancaster bombers drop food into the Netherlands to prevent the starvation of the civilian population.
- Adolf Hitler marries his longtime mistress Eva Braun in a closed civil ceremony in the Berlin Führerbunker and signs his last will and testament.
- April 30 – Death of Adolf Hitler: Adolf Hitler and his wife of one day, Eva Braun, commit suicide as the Red Army approaches the Führerbunker in Berlin. Großadmiral Karl Dönitz succeeds Hitler as President of Germany (Reichspräsident) and Joseph Goebbels succeeds as Chancellor of Germany (Reichskanzler), in accordance with Hitler's political testament of the previous day.
- May – Interpol (being headquartered in Berlin) effectively ceases to exist (it is recreated on June 3, 1946).
- May 1 – WWII:
- Hamburg Radio announces that Hitler has died in battle, "fighting up to his last breath against Bolshevism."
- Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magda commit suicide after killing their six children. Karl Dönitz appoints Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk as the new Chancellor of Germany in the Flensburg Government.
- Troops of the Yugoslav 4th Army, together with the Slovene 9th Corpus NOV, enter Trieste.
- Mass suicide in Demmin. An estimated 700–2,500 suicides take place after 80% of the town has been destroyed by Soviets during the past three days.
- May 2 – WWII:
- The Soviet Union announces the fall of Berlin. Soviet soldiers hoist the Red flag over the Reich Chancellery.
- Lübeck is liberated by the British Army.
- Surrender of Axis troops in Italy comes into effect.
- Troops of the New Zealand Army 2nd Division enter Trieste a day after the Yugoslavs; the German Army in Trieste surrenders to the New Zealand Army.
- Following the death or resignation of the Hitler Cabinet in Germany, the Schwerin von Krosigk cabinet first meets.
- Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg is evacuated at about this date.
- Expatriate American poet Ezra Pound is arrested by the Italian resistance movement; released by them, on May 5 he turns himself in to the United States Army and is imprisoned as a traitor.
- May 3 – WWII:
- The prison ships Cap Arcona (5,000 dead), Thielbek (2,750 dead) and Deutschland (all survive) are sunk by the British Royal Air Force in Lübeck Bay.
- Rocket scientist Wernher von Braun and 120 members of his team surrender to U.S. forces (later going on to help to start the U.S. space program).
- German Protestant theologian Gerhard Kittel is arrested by the French forces in Tübingen, Germany.
- May 4 – WWII:
- German surrender at Lüneburg Heath: All German armed forces in northwest Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands surrender unconditionally to Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, officially coming into effect on May 5 at 08:00 hours British Double (and German) Summer Time.
- The Netherlands is liberated by British and Canadian troops.
- Denmark is liberated.
- Admiral Karl Dönitz orders all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to bases in Norway.
- The Holy Crown of Hungary is found by the United States Army 86th Infantry Division. The United States government keeps the crown in Fort Knox for safekeeping from the Soviets until it is returned to Hungary on 6 January 1978.
- German auxiliary cruiser Orion is sunk on her way to Copenhagen carrying refugees; with a loss of over 3,800 lives.
- May 5 – WWII:
- Prague uprising: Prague rises up against occupying Nazi forces.
- The US 11th Armored Division liberates the prisoners of Mauthausen concentration camp, including Simon Wiesenthal.
- Canadian soldiers liberate the city of Amsterdam from Nazi occupation.
- A Japanese fire balloon kills six people, Elsie Mitchell and five children, near Bly, Oregon, when it explodes as they drag it from the woods. These are the only people killed by an enemy attack on the American mainland during WWII.
- Yosemite Sam, a cartoon character debuts in Hare Trigger.
- May 6
- May 6–7 – The government of the Independent State of Croatia, the Nazi-affiliated fascist puppet state established in occupied Yugoslavia, flees Zagreb for a location near Klagenfurt in Austria rather than fall into the hands of the Yugoslav Partisans, initiating the Bleiburg repatriations.
- May 7 – WWII: General Alfred Jodl signs the unconditional German Instrument of Surrender at Reims, France, ending Germany's participation in the war, officially coming into effect on May 8 at 23:01 hours Central European Time (00:01 hours May 9 German Summer Time).
- May 8 – WWII:
- Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) observed by the western European powers as Nazi Germany surrenders, marking the end of WWII in Europe.
- Shortly before midnight (May 9 Moscow time) the final German Instrument of Surrender is signed at the seat of the Soviet Military Administration in Berlin-Karlshorst, attended by representatives of the Allies.
- Canadian troops move into Amsterdam, after German troops surrender.
- Surrender of the Dodecanese is signed in Symi.
- The British 8th Army, together with Slovene partisan troops and a motorized detachment of the Yugoslav 4th Army, arrives in Carinthia and Klagenfurt. The Croatian Armed Forces of the Independent State of Croatia are ordered by their commanders not to surrender to the Yugoslav Partisans but to attempt to retreat to Austria and surrender to the British, part of the events leading to the Bleiburg repatriations.
- May 8–29 – Sétif and Guelma massacre: In Algeria, thousands die as French troops and released Italian POWs kill an estimated 6,000 to 40,000 Algerian citizens.
- May 9 – WWII:
- The Soviet Union marks V-E Day.
- The Red Army enters Prague.
- Hermann Göring surrenders to the United States Army near Radstadt.
- Vidkun Quisling and other members of the collaborationist Quisling regime in Norway surrender to the Resistance (Milorg) and police at Møllergata 19 in Oslo as part of the legal purge in Norway after World War II.
- General Alexander Löhr, Commander of German Army Group E near Topolšica, Slovenia, signs the capitulation of German occupation troops.
- The German occupation of the Channel Islands in Guernsey and Jersey ends with their liberation by British troops.
- May 10 – The German occupation of the Channel Islands in Sark ends with their liberation by British troops.
- May 12
- May 14–15 – WWII: Battle of Poljana – The last battle of the War in Europe is fought at Poljana near Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia.
- May 15 – WWII: – Surrender at Bleiburg – Retreating troops of the Croatian Armed Forces of the former puppet Independent State of Croatia (intermingled with fleeing civilians) attempt to surrender to the British Army at Bleiburg but are directed to surrender to Yugoslav Partisans who open fire on them. The remainder, after orders are given by Tito, are force-marched through Croatia and Serbia, interned or massacred, with thousands dying.
- May 16 – The German occupation of the Channel Islands in Alderney ends with their liberation by British troops.
- May 23
- The Flensburg Government is dissolved by the Allies and President of Germany Karl Dönitz and Chancellor of Germany Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk are arrested by British forces at Flensburg. They are respectively the last German Head of state and Head of government until 1949.
- Heinrich Himmler, former head of the Nazi SS, commits suicide in British custody.
- May 28 – U.S.-born Irish-raised William Joyce ("Lord Haw-Haw") is captured. He is later charged with high treason in London for his English-language wartime broadcasts on German radio, convicted, and then hanged in January 1946.
- May 29
- May 30 – The Iranian government demands that all Soviet and British troops leave the country.
- June 1 – The British take over Lebanon and Syria.
- June 5 – The Allied Control Council, military occupation governing body of Germany, formally takes power.
- June 6 – King Haakon VII of Norway returns to Norway.
- June 11
- June 12 – The Yugoslav Army leaves Trieste, leaving the New Zealand Army in control.
- June 21 – WWII: The Battle of Okinawa ends with US occupation of the island until 1972.
- June 24 – WWII: A victory parade is held in Red Square in Moscow.
- June 25 – Seán T. O'Kelly is elected the second President of Ireland.
- June 26 – The United Nations Charter is signed.
- June 29 – Czechoslovakia cedes Carpathian Ruthenia to the Soviet Union.
- June 30 – Distribution of John von Neumann's First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, containing the first published description of the logical design of a computer with stored-program and instruction data stored in the same address space within the memory (von Neumann architecture).
- Vannevar Bush's As We May Think published.
- July 1 – WWII: Germany is divided between the Allied occupation forces.
- July 4 – The Brazilian cruiser "Bahia" is sunk by an accidentally induced explosion, killing more than 300 and stranding the survivors in shark-infested waters.
- July 5
- John Curtin, 14th Prime Minister of Australia, dies in office from heart failure at the age of 60. He was briefly replaced by his deputy Frank Forde, who served as the 15th Prime Minister until a Labor Party leadership election is held to replace Curtin.
- WWII: The Philippines are declared liberated.
- July 8 – WWII: Harry S. Truman is informed that Japan will talk peace if it can retain the reign of the Emperor.
- July 9 – A forest fire breaks out in the Tillamook Burn (the third in that area of Oregon since 1933).
- July 12 – Ben Chifley is elected leader of the Labor Party and consequently becomes the 16th Prime Minister of Australia, defeating Frank Forde as well as Norman Makin and H.V. Evatt. As a result, Forde becomes the shortest serving Prime Minister in Australian history; nevertheless, he retained his post as Deputy leader.
- July 14 – WWII: Italy declares war on Japan.
- July 15 – The Scott Morrison Award of Minor Hockey Excellence was first given; first recipient is Gordie Howe.
- July 16
- July 17–August 2 – WWII: Potsdam Conference – At Potsdam, the three main Allied leaders hold their final summit of the war. President Truman officially informs Stalin that the U.S. has a powerful new weapon.
- July 21 – WWII: President Harry S. Truman approves the order for atomic bombs to be used against Japan.
- July 23 – WWII: French marshal Philippe Pétain, who headed the Vichy government during WWII, goes on trial for treason.
- July 26 – Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after his Conservative Party is soundly defeated by the Labour Party in the 1945 general election. Clement Attlee becomes the new Prime Minister. It is the first time that Labour has governed Britain with a majority in the House of Commons.
- July 26 – The Potsdam Declaration demands Japan's unconditional surrender; Article 12 permitting Japan to retain the reign of the Emperor has been deleted by President Truman.
- July 27 – WWII: Bombing of Aomori – Two USAAF B-29s dropped a total of 60,000 leaflets on the city of Aomori, Japan, warning civilians of an air raid and urge them to leave immediately.
- July 28
- July 29
- July 30 – WWII: The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis is hit and sunk by torpedoes from the Japanese submarine I-58 in the Philippine Sea. Some 900 survivors jump into the sea and are adrift for up to four days. Nearly 600 die before help arrives. Captain Charles B. McVay III of the cruiser is later court-martialed and convicted.
- August 6 – WWII: Atomic bombing of Hiroshima: A United States B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay, drops an atomic bomb, codenamed "Little Boy", on Hiroshima, Japan, at 8:15 a.m. (local time). The atomic bombings are believed to have resulted in between 129,000 and 246,000 deaths.
- August 7 – U.S. President Harry Truman announces the successful atomic bombing of Hiroshima while he is returning from the Potsdam Conference aboard the U.S. Navy heavy cruiser USS Augusta (CA-31) in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
- August 8
- The United Nations Charter is ratified by the United States Senate, and this nation becomes the third to join the new international organization.
- WWII: The Soviet Union declares war on Japan.
- August 9 – WWII:
- Atomic bombing of Nagasaki: A United States B-29 Bomber, Bockscar, drops an atomic bomb, codenamed "Fat Man", on Nagasaki, Japan, at 11:02 a.m. (local time).
- Soviet–Japanese War opens: The Soviet Union begins its army offensive against Japan in the northern part of the Japanese-held Chinese region of Manchuria.
- August 10 – WWII: Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, "provided this does not prejudice the sovereignty of the Emperor".
- August 11
- August 11–25 – Soviet troops complete occupation of Sakhalin.
- August 13 – The Zionist World Congress approaches the British government to discuss the founding of the country of Israel.
- August 14
- August 15
- WWII: Gyokuon-hōsō: Emperor Hirohito's announcement of the unconditional surrender of Japan is broadcast on the radio a little after noon (12:00 Japan Standard Time is 03:00 GMT). This is probably the first time an Emperor of Japan has been heard by the common people. Delivered in formal classical Japanese and without directly referring to surrender, the recorded speech is not immediately easily understood by ordinary people. The Allies call this day Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day). This ends the period of Japanese expansionism and begins the period of Occupation of Japan. Korea gains independence.
- The August Revolution in Vietnam begins with the Viet Minh taking over the capital Hanoi, taking advantage of the collapse of Japanese power.
- Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization founded as a specialized agency of the United Nations.
- August 16 – Polish–Soviet treaty establishes boundaries between the two countries.
- August 17
- Philippines President José P. Laurel issues an Executive Proclamation putting an end to the Second Philippine Republic, thus ending to his term as President of the Philippines.
- Proclamation of Indonesian Independence: Indonesian nationalists Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declare the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, with Sukarno as president and Mohammad Hatta as vice-president, igniting the Indonesian National Revolution against the Dutch Empire.
- The allegorical dystopian novella Animal Farm by George Orwell, a satire on Stalinism, is first published by Fredric Warburg in London.
- August 19 – Chinese Civil War: Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek meet in Chongqing to discuss an end to hostilities between the Communists and the Nationalists.
- August 23 – Soviet–Japanese War – Joseph Stalin orders the detention of Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union.
- August 30 – WWII: Vietnam's capital Hanoi is overthrown by the Viet Minh which ends the French occupation in what becomes North Vietnam and thus the southern provinces become South Vietnam. This ends the August Revolution.
- August 31
- WWII: Allied troops arrest German field marshal Walther von Brauchitsch.
- A team at American Cyanamid's Lederle Laboratories, Pearl River, New York, led by Yellapragada Subbarow, announces they have obtained folic acid in a pure crystalline form. This vitamin is abundant in green leaf vegetables, liver, kidney, and yeast.
- September 2 – WWII ends:
- Japanese general Tomoyuki Yamashita surrenders to Filipino and American forces at Kiangan, Ifugao.
- The final official Japanese Instrument of Surrender is accepted by the Supreme Allied Commander, General Douglas MacArthur, and Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz for the United States, and delegates from the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, China, and others from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu, on board the American battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
- General Douglas MacArthur is given the title of Supreme Commander Allied Powers, and is also tasked with the occupation of Japan.
- September 2 – Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is officially established, by Ho Chi Minh.
- September 3 – The earliest events of the Cold War begin.
- September 4 – WWII: Japanese forces surrender on Wake Island after hearing word of their country's surrender.
- September 5
- Iva Toguri D'Aquino, a Japanese American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose", is arrested in Yokohama.
- The Russian code clerk Igor Gouzenko comes forward with numerous documents implicating the Soviet Union in many spy rings in North America: both in the United States and in Canada.
- September 8
- September 9 – Chiang Kai-shek officially accepts the Japanese capitulation at Nanking.
- September 10 – Vidkun Quisling is sentenced to death as a Nazi collaborator, in Norway.
- September 11
- September 12 – The Japanese Army formally surrenders to the British in Singapore.
- September 18
- September 20 – Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru demand that all British troops depart India.
- October – Arthur C. Clarke puts forward the idea of a geosynchronous communications satellite in a Wireless World magazine article.
- October 1–15 – Operation Backfire: Three A4 rockets are launched near Cuxhaven in a demonstration to Allied forces.
- October 2– George Albert Smith becomes president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
- October 4 – The Partizan Belgrade sports club is founded in Belgrade, Serbia.
- October 5 – Hollywood Black Friday: A strike by the Set Decorator's Union in Hollywood results in a riot.
- October 8–15 – Hadamar Trial: Personnel of the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre, now in the American zone of Allied-occupied Germany, are the first to be tried for systematic extermination in Nazi Germany.
- October 9 – Pierre Laval is sentenced to death for collaboration with the Nazis in Vichy France.
- October 10 – The Nazi Party is officially dissolved by the Allied Powers.
- October 14 – Czechoslovakia: A new provisional national assembly is elected.
- October 15 – WWII: Pierre Laval, the former premier of Vichy France, is shot dead by a firing squad for treason against France.
- October 15–21 – The Fifth Pan-African Congress is held in Manchester.
- October 16 – Food and Agriculture Organization established at a meeting in Quebec City as a specialized agency of the United Nations.
- October 17 – A massive number of people, headed for the General Confederation of Labour (Argentina), gather in the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires to demand Juan Perón's release. This is known to the Peronists as the Día de la lealtad (Loyalty Day) and considered the founding day of Peronism.
- October 18 – Isaías Medina Angarita, president of Venezuela, is overthrown by a military coup.
- October 19 – Members of the Indonesian People's Army attack Anglo-Dutch forces in Indonesia.
- October 20 – Mongolians vote for independence from China.
- October 21 – Women's suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in the French Legislative Election for the first time.
- October 22 – Rómulo Betancourt is named provisional president of Venezuela.
- October 23 – Jackie Robinson signs a contract with the Montreal Royals baseball team.
- October 24
- October 25
- October 27–November 20 – Indonesian National Revolution: Battle of Surabaya – Pro-independence Indonesian soldiers and militia fight British and British Indian troops in Surabaya.
- October 29
- October 30 – The undivided country of India joins the United Nations.
- Astrid Lindgren's children's book Pippi Långstrump is published in Sweden and its English translation as Pippi Longstocking is also issued.
- November 1
- November 5 – Colombia joins the United Nations.
- November 6 – Indonesians reject an offer of autonomy from the Dutch.
- November 9 – Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan is founded.
- November 11 – Marshal Josip Broz Tito and the People's Front win a deciding majority (85%) in the Yugoslavian assembly.
- November 15
- November 16
- Charles de Gaulle is unanimously elected president of France by the provisional government.
- Cold War: The United States controversially imports 88 German scientists to help in the production of rocket technology.
- Agreement for the foundation of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) at a meeting in London.
- Casper the Friendly Ghost, an animated character debuts in The Friendly Ghost.
- The motion picture The Lost Weekend, starring Ray Milland, is released. The most realistic film portrayal of alcoholism up to this time, it wins several Academy Awards in the following year.
- Yeshiva College is founded in New York City.
- November 18 – The Tudeh party starts a bloodless coup and will form Azerbaijan within days. Soviet troops prevent Iranian troops from getting involved.
- November 20 – The Nuremberg trials begin: Trials against 22 Nazi war criminals of WWII start at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice.
- November 26 – U.S. Ambassador to China Patrick J. Hurley resigns after he is unable to broker a deal between Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse Tung.
- November 28 – An earthquake in Balochistan causes a tsunami and kills 4,000.
- November 29
- The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is declared (this day is celebrated as Republic Day until the 1990s). Marshal Tito is named president.
- Assembly of the world's first general purpose electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer (ENIAC), is completed in the United States, covering 1,800 square feet (170 m2) of floor space, and the first set of calculations is run on it.
- December 2
- December 3 – Communist demonstrations in Athens presage the Greek Civil War.
- December 4 – By a vote of 65–7, the United States Senate approves the entry of the United States into the United Nations.
- December 5 – A flight of United States Navy Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bombers known as Flight 19 disappears on a training exercise from Naval Air Station Fort Lauderdale.
- December 19 - John Amery, British Fascist, at the age of 33 executed by the British Government for treason.
- December 21 – General George S. Patton dies from injuries sustained in a car accident on December 9 in Germany.
- December 24 – Five of nine children become missing after their home in Fayetteville, West Virginia, is burned down.
- December 27
- A team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led by Charles Coryell discovers chemical element 61, the only one still missing between 1 and 96 on the periodic table, which they will name promethium. Found by analysis of fission products of irradiated uranium fuel, its discovery is not made public until 1947.
- The first geothermal milk pasteurization is done in Klamath Falls, Oregon.
- January 1
- January 3 – Stephen Stills, American rock singer and songwriter
- January 4 – Richard R. Schrock, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- January 7
- January 10
- January 11 – Christine Kaufmann, German actress (d. 2017)
- January 12 – André Bicaba, Burkinabé sprinter
- January 14 – Einar Hákonarson, Icelandic painter
- January 15
- January 20 – Robert Olen Butler, American writer
- January 21 – Martin Shaw, British TV and film actor
- January 25
- January 26
- January 27 – Harold Cardinal, Cree political leader, writer, and lawyer (d. 2005)
- January 28
- January 29
- January 30 – Michael Dorris, American author (d. 1997)
- January 31 – Joseph Kosuth, American artist
- February 3
- February 5 – Sarah Weddington, American attorney
- February 6 – Bob Marley, Jamaican reggae singer, songwriter and musician (d. 1981)
- February 7 – Gerald Davies, Welsh rugby player
- February 9 – Mia Farrow, American actress
- February 10 – Koo Bon-moo, South Korean business executive (d. 2018)
- February 12
- February 13 – Simon Schama, English academician and historian
- February 14 – Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein
- February 15 – Douglas Hofstadter, American cognitive scientist
- February 16 – Jeremy Bulloch, English actor
- February 17 – Brenda Fricker, Irish actress
- February 18
- February 20 – Henry Polic II, American actor (d. 2013)
- February 24 – Barry Bostwick, American actor
- February 25
- February 26 – Marta Kristen, Norwegian actress
- February 27 – Carl Anderson, American singer and actor (d. 2004)
- February 28 – Bubba Smith, American football player and actor (d. 2011)
- March 1 – Dirk Benedict, American actor
- March 3
- March 4
- March 7
- March 8
- March 9
- March 13 – Anatoly Fomenko, Russian mathematician
- March 15 – A. K. Faezul Huq, Bangladeshi lawyer and politician (d. 2007)
- March 17
- March 20
- March 21 – Charles Greene, American Olympic athlete
- March 24 – Curtis Hanson, American film director and screenwriter (d. 2016)
- March 26 – Mikhail Voronin, Russian gymnast (d. 2004)
- March 28
- March 29
- March 30 – Eric Clapton, English rock guitarist
- March 31 – Gabe Kaplan, American actor, comedian, and professional poker player
- April 2
- April 4
- April 5 – Cem Karaca, Turkish musician (d. 2004)
- April 7 – Werner Schroeter, German film director (d. 2010)
- April 9 – Peter Gammons, American baseball sportswriter
- April 11 – Christian Quadflieg, German actor
- April 12 – Lee Jong-wook, Korean Director-General of the World Health Organization (d. 2006)
- April 13
- April 14
- April 20 – Naftali Temu, Kenyan Olympic athlete (d. 2003)
- April 21 – Ana Lúcia Torre, Brazilian actress
- April 24 – Doug Clifford, American drummer
- April 25
- April 27 – August Wilson, American playwright (d. 2005)
- April 29
- April 30 – Lara Saint Paul, Eritrean-born Italian singer (d. 2018)
- May 1 – Rita Coolidge, American pop singer
- May 3 – Jeffrey C. Hall, American geneticist and chronobiologist, Nobel Prize laureate
- May 4 – Narasimhan Ram, Indian journalist
- May 5 – Kurt Loder, American film critic, author and television personality
- May 6
- May 8 – Keith Jarrett, American musician
- May 9 – Jupp Heynckes, German football manager and former footballer
- May 13 – Tammam Salam, 34th Prime Minister of Lebanon
- May 14 – Yochanan Vollach, Israeli footballer and president of Maccabi Haifa, CEO
- May 15 – Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, heir to the Portuguese crown
- May 16 – Nicky Chinn, English rock songwriter (Sweet, Suzi Quatro)
- May 17 – Tony Roche, Australian tennis player
- May 19 – Pete Townshend, English rock guitarist and lyricist (The Who)
- May 21
- May 22 – Victoria Wyndham, American actress (Another World)
- May 23
- May 24 – Priscilla Presley, American actress and businesswoman
- May 28 – John Fogerty, American rock singer (Creedence Clearwater Revival)
- May 29 – Gary Brooker, English pianist and singer (Procol Harum)
- May 30
- May 31
- June 1 – Frederica von Stade, American mezzo-soprano
- June 2 – Jon Peters, American film producer
- June 3 – Hale Irwin, American professional golfer
- June 4
- June 5
- June 6 – David Dukes, American actor (d. 2000)
- June 7
- June 8 – Steven Fromholz, American singer-songwriter (d. 2014)
- June 9 – Nike Wagner, German woman of the theater
- June 10 – Benny Gallagher, Scottish singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist, half of the duo Gallagher and Lyle
- June 11 – Adrienne Barbeau, American actress, television personality and author
- June 12 – Pat Jennings, Northern Irish footballer
- June 13 – Rodney P. Rempt, American admiral
- June 14
- June 15
- June 16
- June 17
- June 19
- June 20 – Anne Murray, Canadian singer
- June 21
- June 23
- June 24
- June 25
- June 26 – Dwight York, American musician, fashion consultant, cult leader, and child molester
- June 27
- June 28
- June 29 – Chandrika Kumaratunga, 5th President of Sri Lanka
- June 30 – Kevin Jackman, Australian rules footballer
- July 1
- July 3 – Thomas Mapfumo, Zimbabwean musician
- July 4
- July 6 – Burt Ward, American actor (Batman)
- July 7
- July 8 – Micheline Calmy-Rey, Swiss Federal Councilor
- July 9 – Dean Koontz, American writer
- July 10
- July 11 – Richard Wesley, American playwright and screenwriter
- July 12
- July 13
- July 15
- July 16
- July 17
- July 18
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 24 – Azim Premji, Indian businessman
- July 26 – Dame Helen Mirren, British actress
- July 28 – Jim Davis, American cartoonist
- July 30
- August 1 – Douglas D. Osheroff, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
- August 2 – Joanna Cassidy, American actress
- August 4 – Alan Mulally, American businessman, former CEO of the Ford Motor Company
- August 5
- August 6 – Ron Jones, British director (d. 1993)
- August 7 – Alan Page, American football player
- August 9 – Posy Simmonds, English cartoonist
- August 12 – J. D. McClatchy, American poet and literary critic (d. 2018)
- August 13 – Howard Marks, Welsh drug smuggler and author (d. 2016)
- August 14
- August 15
- August 19 – Ian Gillan, English rock singer (Deep Purple)
- August 20 – Jonathan Goodson, American television game show producer and son of Mark Goodson
- August 22 – Ron Dante, American rock singer, songwriter, and record producer (The Archies)
- August 24 – Vincent K. "Vince" McMahon, American professional wrestling promoter, chairman and CEO of WWE
- August 25 – Daniel Hulet, Belgian cartoonist (d. 2011)
- August 26 – Tom Ridge, American politician
- August 27 – Marianne Sägebrecht, German film actress
- August 29 – Wyomia Tyus, American Olympic athlete
- August 31
- September 1 – Mustafa Balel, Turkish writer
- September 4 – Danny Gatton, American guitarist (d. 1994)
- September 5 – Al Stewart, Scottish singer-songwriter
- September 6 – Victor Ramahatra, 5th Prime Minister of Madagascar
- September 7 – Jacques Lemaire, Canadian ice hockey coach
- September 8
- September 9 – Doug Ingle, American singer-songwriter
- September 10 – José Feliciano, Puerto Rican-American singer
- September 11 – Franz Beckenbauer, German footballer and coach
- September 12 – Richard Thaler, American economist
- September 14 – Martin Tyler, British sports broadcaster
- September 15 – Jessye Norman, American soprano
- September 16 – Pat Stevens, American voice actress (d. 2010)
- September 17 – Phil Jackson, American basketball coach
- September 19 – Randolph Mantooth, American actor and motivational speaker
- September 20
- September 21
- September 22 – Gonzaguinha, Brazilian singer and composer (d. 1991)
- September 23 – Paul Petersen, child actor and advocate of other child actors
- September 24 – John Rutter, English choral composer and conductor
- September 25 – Dee Dee Warwick, American singer (d. 2008)
- September 26 – Bryan Ferry, English singer-songwriter and musician (Roxy Music)
- September 27 – Jack Goldstein, Canadian artist (d. 2003)
- September 29 – Nadezhda Chizhova, Russian athlete
- September 30
- October 1
- October 2 – Don McLean, American rock singer-songwriter
- October 3
- October 4 – Clifton Davis, American actor
- October 5 – Brian Connolly, Scottish musician (d. 1997)
- October 6 – Ivan Graziani, Italian singer-songwriter (d. 1997)
- October 9 – Vijaya Kumaratunga, Sri Lankan film actor and politician (d. 1988)
- October 12
- October 13 – Susan Stafford, American television presenter
- October 15 – Jim Palmer, American baseball player
- October 18
- October 19
- October 20 – George Wyner, American actor
- October 22
- October 23
- October 24 – Eugenie Scott, Executive Director of the National Center for Science Education
- October 25
- October 26
- October 27
- October 29 – Melba Moore, American singer and actress
- October 29 – Daniel Albright, American literary critic and musicologist
- October 30 – Henry Winkler, American actor, producer and director
- October 31 – Brian Doyle-Murray, American actor
- November 3 – Gerd Müller, German footballer
- November 5 – Jacques Lanctôt, Canadian terrorist
- November 7
- November 12
- November 15 – Anni-Frid Lyngstad, Norwegian rock singer
- November 18
- November 21 – Goldie Hawn, American actress
- November 22 – Robert Ben Rhoades, American serial killer and rapist also known as "The Truck Stop Killer"
- November 23
- November 24 – Nuruddin Farah, Somali novelist
- November 26
- November 27
- November 30
- December 1 – Bette Midler, American actress, comedian and singer
- December 2 – Charles "Tex" Watson, American prisoner
- December 6 – Larry Bowa, American baseball player and manager
- December 7 – Clive Russell, English actor
- December 9 – Michael Nouri, American actor
- December 12 – Portia Simpson-Miller, 2-Time Prime Minister of Jamaica
- December 13
- December 16 – Patti Deutsch, American voice actress
- December 17
- December 19 – Elaine Joyce, American actress and game show panelist
- December 20
- December 21 – Mari Lill, Estonian actress
- December 22 – Diane Sawyer, American news journalist
- December 24
- December 25 – Gary Sandy, American actor
- December 26 – John Walsh, American media personality
- December 28 – King Birendra of Nepal (d. 2001)
- December 30 – Davy Jones, English-born pop singer and actor (d. 2012)
- December 31
- January 2 – Bertram Ramsay, British admiral (b. 1883)
- January 3 – Edgar Cayce, American mysticist (b. 1877)
- January 4 – Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno, 3-time President of Costa Rica (b. 1859)
- January 6
- January 7
- January 9
- January 10 – Pēteris Juraševskis, 8th Prime Minister of Latvia (b. 1872)
- January 12 – Teresio Olivelli, Italian Roman Catholic soldier and venerable (b. 1916)
- January 15 – Pedro Abad Santos, Filipino politician, brother of Jose Abad Santos (b. 1876)
- January 16 – José Fabella, Filipino physician (b. 1889)
- January 19
- January 20 – Federico Pedrocchi, Italian artist and writer (b. 1907)
- January 21 – Archibald Murray, British Army general (b. 1860)
- January 22 – Else Lasker-Schüler, German poet and author (b. 1869)
- January 23
- January 30
- January 31 – Eddie Slovik, American soldier (b. 1920)
- Anne Frank, German-born Jewish diarist and writer (typhus in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp) (b. 1929)
- February 1
- Teresa Bogusławska, Polish poet (b. 1929)
- Bogdan Filov, Bulgarian archaeologist, historian and politician, 28th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1883)
- Dobri Bozhilov, 29th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1884)
- Ivan Ivanov Bagryanov, 30th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1891)
- Prince Kiril of Bulgaria (b. 1895)
- Petar Gabrovski, former acting Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1898)
- February 2
- February 3 – Roland Freisler, Nazi German judge (b. 1893)
- February 5
- February 6 – Robert Brasillach, French writer (b. 1909)
- February 7 – Karl Schwitalle, German Olympic weightlifter (b. 1906)
- February 8 – Robert Mallet-Stevens, French architect and designer (b. 1886)
- February 10 – Anacleto Díaz, Filipino jurist (murdered during the Battle of Manila) (b. 1878)
- February 11 – Al Dubin, Swiss songwriter (b. 1891)
- February 12 – Antonio Villa-Real, Filipino jurist (murdered during the Battle of Manila) (b. 1878)
- February 13 – Maria Orosa, Filipino technologist, chemist, humanitarian and WWII heroine (b. 1893)
- February 15 – Helmut Möckel, German youth leader and politician (b. 1909)
- February 17 – Gabrielle Weidner, Belgian World War II heroine (b. 1914)
- February 18
- February 19 – Heinrich Jasper, German politician (b. 1875)
- February 21 – Eric Liddell, British Olympic athlete (b. 1902)
- February 22 – Sara Josephine Baker, American physician (b. 1873)
- February 23
- February 24 – Josef Mayr-Nusser, Italian Roman Catholic layman, martyr and blessed (b. 1910)
- February 25 – Mário de Andrade, Brazilian writer and photographer (b. 1893)
- February 26
- March 2 – Emily Carr, Canadian artist (b. 1871)
- March 3 – Aleksandra Samusenko, Soviet WWII tank commander (b. 1922)
- March 4
- March 5
- March 7 – Ralph Ignatowski, American WWII hero (killed in action) (b. 1926)
- March 8 – Frederick Bligh Bond, British architect (b. 1864)
- March 12 – Friedrich Fromm, German Nazi official (executed) (b. 1888)
- March 14 – Antônio Francisco Braga, Brazilian composer (b. 1868)
- March 16 – Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (b. 1874)
- March 18 – William Grover-Williams, French race car driver and war hero (b. 1903)
- March 19 – Marcel Callo, French Roman Catholic layman, martyr and blessed (b. 1921)
- March 20
- March 22
- Enrico Caviglia, Italian marshal (b. 1862)
- Eliyahu Bet-Zuri, Israeli assassin (executed) (b. 1922)
- Eliyahu Hakim, Israeli assassin (executed) (b. 1925)
- John Hessin Clarke, American Supreme Court Justice (b. 1857)
- Branca de Gonta Colaço, Portuguese writer, scholar and linguist (b. 1880)
- Heinrich Maier, Austrian Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1908)
- Takeichi Nishi, Japanese gold medalist at the 1932 Summer Olympics and tank commander at Iwo Jima (b. 1902)
- March 23 – Élisabeth de Rothschild, French WWII heroine (b. 1902)
- March 26
- David Lloyd George, British politician and statesman, 51st Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1863)
- Tadamichi Kuribayashi, Imperial Japanese Army general and commander of the battle of Iwo Jima (probably killed in action) (b. 1891)
- Boris Shaposhnikov, Soviet military leader, Marshal of the Soviet Union (b. 1882)
- March 27 – Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil, Turkish author (b. 1867)
- March 29 – Ferenc Csik, Hungarian swimmer (b. 1913)
- March 30
- March 31
- Harriet Boyd Hawes, American archaeologist (b. 1871)
- Hans Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1881)
- Torgny Segerstedt, Swedish newspaper editor and publicist (b. 1876)
- Maria Skobtsova, Soviet Orthodox nun and saint (killed by poison) (b. 1891)
- Natalia Tulasiewicz, Polish teacher and Roman Catholic blessed (b. 1906)
- April – Auguste van Pels, German-Jewish housemate of Anne Frank (b. 1900) (exact date unknown)
- April 1 – Giuseppe Girotti, Italian Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1905)
- April 5 – Huldreich Georg Früh, Swiss composer (b. 1903)
- April 7
- April 9
- April 10
- April 12 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, American political leader and statesman, 32nd President of the United States (b. 1882)
- April 13 – Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher (b. 1874)
- April 14
- April 16 – Ernst Bergmann, German philosopher (b. 1881)
- April 17 – Franz Heritsch, Austrian geologist and paleontologist (b. 1882)
- April 18
- April 21
- April 22
- April 24 – Ernst-Robert Grawitz, German Reichsphysician (S.S. and Police) in the Third Reich (probable suicide) (b. 1899)
- April 26
- April 28
- Franz Brantzky, German painter, sculptor and architecture (b. 1871)
- Hermann Fegelein, German Nazi general (b. 1906)
- Benito Mussolini, Italian politician and journalist, 27th Prime Minister of Italy and Duce of Fascism (executed) (b. 1883)
- Clara Petacci, mistress of Benito Mussolini (b. 1912)
- Nicola Bombacci, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1879)
- Achille Starace, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1889)
- Alessandro Pavolini, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1903)
- Roberto Farinacci, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1892)
- April 29
- April 30
- May 1
- May 2
- May 3 – Mario Blasich, Italian physician and politician (b. 1878)
- May 4 – Fedor von Bock, German field marshal (b. 1880)
- May 5
- May 6 – Xhem Hasa, Albanian nationalist (b. 1908)
- May 7 – Vladimir Boyarsky, Soviet army officer (b. 1901)
- May 8
- May 9 – Gustav Becking, German musician (b. 1894)
- May 10 – Konrad Henlein, Sudeten German Nazi leader (b. 1898)
- May 11 – Kiyoshi Ogawa, Japanese kamikaze pilot (b. 1922)
- May 14
- May 15
- May 16 – Kaju Sugiura, Japanese admiral (b. 1896)
- May 18 – William Joseph Simmons, American founder of the second Ku Klux Klan (b. 1880)
- May 19 – Philipp Bouhler, German Nazi leader (b. 1899)
- May 21
- May 23 – Heinrich Himmler, German head of the SS (b. 1900)
- May 24 – Robert Ritter von Greim, German field marshal (b. 1892)
- May 25 – Rafael Estrella Ureña, Dominican lawyer and politician, acting President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1889)
- May 31 – Odilo Globocnik, Austrian Nazi leader (b. 1904)
- June 2 – József Heszlényi, Hungarian general (b. 1890)
- June 4 – Georg Kaiser, German dramatist (b. 1878)
- June 7 – Kitaro Nishida, Japanese philosopher (b. 1870)
- June 8 – Robert Desnos, French poet and resistance fighter (b. 1900)
- June 13 – Minoru Ōta, Japanese admiral (b. 1891)
- June 15
- June 16
- June 18
- June 19 – Seweryn Franciszek Światopełk-Czetwertyński, Polish politician (b. 1873)
- June 20 – Prince Luís Fernando de Orleans y Borbón (b. 1888)
- June 22
- June 23
- June 24 – José Gutiérrez Solana, Spanish painter (b. 1886)
- June 26 – Javier Ángel Figueroa, Chilean lawyer and politician (b. 1862)
- June 27
- June 30
- July 1 – Félix Evaristo Mejía, Dominican diplomat, educator and writer (b. 1866)
- July 2 – Óscar R. Benavides, Peruvian field marshal, diplomat and politician, President of Peru (b. 1876)
- July 5 – John Curtin, 14th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1885)
- July 7 – Peter To Rot, Papuan Roman Catholic layman, martyr and blessed (b. 1912)
- July 9 – Luigi Aldrovandi Marescotti, Italian politician and diplomat (b. 1876)
- July 12 – Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, German field marshal (b. 1895)
- July 13 – Alla Nazimova, Russian-born American actress (b. 1879)
- July 16 – Addison Randall, American actor (b. 1906)
- July 17 – Ernst Busch, German field marshal (b. 1885)
- July 19 – George Barbier, American actor (b. 1864)
- July 20 – Paul Valéry, French poet (b. 1871)
- July 25 – Malin Craig, United States Army general (b. 1875)
- July 28 – Margot Asquith, Countess of Oxford and Asquith (b. 1864)
- July 29 – Maria Pierina De Micheli, Italian Roman Catholic religious sister, mystic and blessed (b. 1890)
- July 31 – Artemio Ricarte, Filipino general (b. 1866)
- August 1 – Blas Cabrera Felipe, Spanish physicist (b. 1878)
- August 2 – Pietro Mascagni, Italian composer (b. 1863)
- August 3 – Roman Kochanowski, Polish painter and illustrator (b. 1857)
- August 8 – Joseph Pujol, Le Pétomane, French flatulist (b. 1857)
- August 7 – Jacques Vaillant de Guélis, French WWII hero (b. 1907)
- August 9
- August 10 – Robert H. Goddard, American rocket scientist (b. 1882)
- August 12 – Karl Leisner, German Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1915)
- August 15
- August 16 – Takijirō Ōnishi, Japanese admiral (b. 1891)
- August 18
- August 19 – Tomás Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (b. 1875)
- August 22 – Mustafa Al-Maraghi, Egyptian reformer (b. 1881)
- August 25
- August 26
- August 27 – Maria Pilar Izquierdo Albero, Spanish Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1906)
- August 29 – Fritz Pfleumer, German engineer and inventor (b. 1881)
- August 30 – Florencio Harmodio Arosemena, 6th President of Panama (b. 1872)
- August 31
- September 1 – Frank Craven, American actor (b. 1881)
- September 6
- September 9 – Aage Bertelsen, Danish painter (b. 1873)
- September 12 – Sugiyama Hajime, Japanese general (b. 1880)
- September 15
- September 16 – John McCormack, Irish tenor (b. 1884)
- September 18 – José Agripino Barnet, Cuban politician and diplomat, acting President of Cuba (b. 1864)
- September 20
- September 24 – Hans Geiger, German physicist and inventor (b. 1882)
- September 26
- October 1 – Walter Bradford Cannon, American physiology (b. 1871)
- October 6 – Hans Vogel, Chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) (b. 1881)
- October 10 – Joseph Darnand, Vichy France politician (b. 1897)
- October 12 – Dmytro Antonovych, Soviet politician (b. 1877)
- October 13 – Milton S. Hershey, American chocolate tycoon (b. 1857)
- October 15 – Pierre Laval, French politician, 2-time Prime Minister of France (executed) (b. 1883)
- October 18 – Yoshiki Yahama, Japanese author (b. 1894)
- October 19
- October 21 – Henry Armetta, Italian actor (b. 1888)
- October 24 – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian collaborationist leader (b. 1887)
- October 25 – Robert Ley, German Nazi politician (b. 1890)
- October 26 – Paul Pelliot, French explorer (b. 1878)
- October 28 – Gilbert Emery, American actor (b. 1875)
- October 30
- October 31
- November 7 – Gus Edwards, American songwriter (b. 1879)
- November 8 – August von Mackensen, German field marshal (b. 1849)
- November 11 – Jerome Kern, American composer (b. 1885)
- November 16 – Sigurður Eggerz, Minister for Iceland during World War I and 2nd Prime Minister of Iceland (b. 1875)
- November 17 – Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1882)
- November 19 – Carlo Alberto Biggini, Italian Fascist politician (b. 1902)
- November 20 – Francis William Aston, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
- November 21
- November 22 – Irma Ingertha Gram, Norwegian historian (b. 1873)
- November 23 – Charles Armijo Woodruff, 11th Governor of American Samoa (b. 1884)
- November 25 – Doris Keane, American stage actress (b. 1881)
- November 27 – Josep Maria Sert, Spanish Catalan muralist (b. 1874)
- November 28 – Dwight F. Davis, American tennis player (b. 1879)
- November 30 – Shigeru Honjō, Japanese general (suicide) (b. 1876)
- December 1 – Anton Dostler, German general (executed) (b. 1891)
- December 3 – George McKay, Soviet-born American actor (b. 1884)
- December 4 – Thomas Hunt Morgan, American biologist, geneticist and embryologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology (b. 1866)
- December 5 – Cosmo Lang, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1864)
- December 8 – Gabriellino D'Annunzio, Italian actor, director and screenwriter (b. 1886)
- December 12 – Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe (b. 1868)
- December 13
- Juana Bormann, Nazi concentration camp guard (executed) (b. 1893)
- Henri Dentz, French general (b. 1881)
- Irma Grese, warden at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (executed) (b. 1923)
- Josef Kramer, commandant of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (executed) (b. 1906)
- Elisabeth Volkenrath, supervisor at Nazi concentration camps (executed) (b. 1919)
- December 14
- December 16
- December 19
- December 21 – George S. Patton, American general (b. 1885)
- December 22 – Otto Neurath, Austrian philosopher and political economist (b. 1892)
- December 24 – Luis Chamizo Trigueros, Spanish writer (b. 1894)
- December 25
- December 26
- December 28 – Theodore Dreiser, American author (b. 1871)
- Physics – Wolfgang Pauli
- Chemistry – Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
- Physiology or Medicine – Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, Sir Howard Florey
- Literature – Gabriela Mistral
- Peace – Cordell Hull
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